| DistroWatch Weekly
|DistroWatch Weekly, Issue 666, 20 June 2016
Welcome to this year's 25th issue of DistroWatch Weekly!
Software continues to change and improve. Sometimes it is difficult to keep up with all the new features and new ways of performing tasks. Last month we published the results of an experiment where five open source operating systems were put through a live upgrade. This week we continue our experiment, putting four more projects through the live upgrade process and reporting on how well each one does. Plus we discuss educational resources which explore how Linux works in our Questions and Answers column. In our News section we talk about Ubuntu's snap packages being adopted by more distributions and Antergos dropping 32-bit installation media. We also cover Fedora's new upgrade method, openSUSE upgrading their compiler and GeckoLinux launching a new rolling release edition. In the Torrent Corner we share the torrents we are seeding and we provide a list of the distributions released last week. In our Opinion Poll we revisit the question of 32-bit verses 64-bit operating systems and we are happy to share some improvements to our Search page. Plus, we are pleased to donate money to Devil-Linux to help the project purchase a new server. We wish you all a joyous week and happy reading!
Listen to the Podcast edition of this week's DistroWatch Weekly in OGG (25MB) and MP3 (38MB) formats
|Feature Story (by Jesse Smith)
Comparing more live version upgrade methods
At the end of May I set out to discover how well a handful of popular Linux distributions (and FreeBSD) would handle a live upgrade between major versions. The results were mostly positive with four of the five open source operating systems successfully upgrading to their latest version.
Following that article, some people asked if I would perform similar upgrade tests on other projects. This past week I set out to perform live upgrades on four more open source operating systems and report on the results.
* * * * *
OpenMandriva 2013.0 to 2014
One of the distributions I was asked to upgrade was Mageia, a relative of the Mandriva family of Linux distributions. Unfortunately, I was unable to find a copy of Mageia's old version 4 release on the project's download mirrors. Apparently it was removed to save space following the release of Mageia 5 and I had to skip experimenting with Mageia.
In Mageia's place I decided to try upgrading OpenMandriva which is probably Mageia's closest relative in the Linux ecosystem. The release notes for OpenMandriva 2014.0 include a section on upgrading the distribution from earlier versions. I downloaded OpenMandriva 2013.0, which was a 1.5GB download. I went through the installation, taking all the default settings, which gave me a copy of OpenMandriva with the KDE desktop environment.
At first I planned to install a few packages and update the software which came with OpenMandriva 2013.0, but I found there were no software repositories set up by default. The release notes warn users about this possibility and I was able to go into the software manager, select media settings and add the missing repositories. At this point I checked for software updates again and was suspicious when the update manager reported there were only 12MB of available updates for the aging version of OpenMandriva.
I tried to install the waiting updates, several times. Each time the update process failed, reporting there was a missing locale package. Skipping this package, I found several other dependencies were missing and so no package updates could be applied to the out of date 2013.0 release.
At this point I decided to skip updating the individual packages and make the leap to OpenMandriva 2014.0. Following the provided instructions in the release notes, I removed the old repository information, enabled the new 2014.0 repositories and performed a command line upgrade. The upgrade process failed quickly, reporting many errors. Essentially, what I found looking through the error log was that most packages failed to upgrade due to missing dependencies.
In the end, the bad news was it was not possible to upgrade OpenMandriva 2013.0 to a newer version. However, the existing system remained usable. Attempting the upgrade did not damage or otherwise prevent me from being able to use the existing 2013.0 installation.
* * * * *
Linux Mint 16 to 17.3
The next distribution on my list was Linux Mint. I was hesitant to cover performing a live upgrade of Linux Mint for two reasons. The first is that Mint's community documentation on version upgrades recommends against performing live upgrades. Instead, the documentation suggests backing up our files and list of installed packages, installing a fresh version of the operating system and then re-adding the packages we had previously installed. Their reasoning makes sense, but they do include a section on live upgrades too for people who really want to go that route. The second reason I almost skipped talking about Linux Mint is, at the time of writing, I only have the option to upgrade version 16 to version 17. However, as I write this, Linux Mint 18 is being beta tested and may be released around the same time as this article, making these comments seem out of date. I do note that the live upgrade process has not changed between the launch of Mint 16 and Mint 18, so what I cover here should be applicable to the latest version of Mint.
I downloaded the Cinnamon edition of Linux Mint 16. The ISO was a 1.2GB download and I installed Mint with all the default settings. After installing Linux Mint 16 I found the version was well out of date and there were no updates available. I could not install additional software as the Mint 16 repositories no longer exist.
Upgrading Linux Mint is a lot like upgrading Debian. We manually edit the APT configuration, changing the source repositories. This is the only tricky part as we need to know both the name of the new version of Mint and the code name of the Ubuntu release Mint's new release uses as a base. For example, Mint might use "Rosa" as a code name while Ubuntu will use "Trusty" for the corresponding version. Once the APT configuration has been updated to point to the proper Ubuntu and Mint repositories, we can refresh our repository information and perform the upgrade using the command line apt-get utility.
I performed the live upgrade in two stages, using "apt-get upgrade" and "apt-get dist-upgrade". In total, these two operations pulled in 890MB of new packages (409MB for the first upgrade and 481MB for the dist-upgrade). During the upgrade process, there were a few speed-bumps. For example, after running "apt-get upgrade" the Cinnamon desktop crashed. I was able to login again and resume the process, but Cinnamon was unstable until after the "apt-get dist-upgrade" command had concluded its work. Also, during the upgrade, the process paused several times to ask if APT should overwrite existing configuration files or leave the old files in place. This means we need to babysit the upgrade process, checking on it occasionally over the span of about four hours.
In the end, I found myself running Linux Mint 17.3,. The system was stable and the new version respected the configuration changes I had made prior to starting the upgrade. While Mint's live upgrade process may not be recommended, it did work.
* * * * *
PC-BSD 9.2 to 10.x
The next project on my list was PC-BSD. The FreeBSD-based operating system does provide
some documentation on upgrading across major versions. One important thing to note is that PC-BSD 10.0 and newer require ZFS to be available, otherwise some of the system utilities will not work. This means we cannot live upgrade PC-BSD 9 to 10 if PC-BSD 9 was installed on an older file system such as UFS. The download for PC-BSD 9.2 was 3.4GB in size. I installed the operating system with all of its default settings, which gave me a copy of the operating system running on ZFS with the KDE desktop.
At first it looked as though PC-BSD would be quite easy to upgrade. Shortly after logging into my account, a notification in the system tray let me know software updates were available. The graphical update manager offered to upgrade the base operating system to PC-BSD 10.0 and update the pkg package manager. The update manager refused to update both components at the same time.
I soon found trying to upgrade either the base system or pkg would fail. The update manager did not provide details as to what had gone wrong and so I decided to attempt a manual upgrade by following the FreeBSD Handbook as I had when performing a live upgrade of FreeBSD back in May. At first the manual process seemed to work, downloading the necessary patches for FreeBSD 10 and getting me to resolve conflicts between my existing configuration files and the new versions. Part way through, we are asked to reboot and then continue the upgrade process using the freebsd-update command utility. PC-BSD failed to reboot and, in fact, the boot loader no longer found any operating systems to run.
The inability of GRUB to find the operating system was unfortunate, both because it meant the upgrade had failed, but it also meant I was unable to rollback the upgrade and use an earlier snapshot of the operating system. I had taken the time to save a snapshot of PC-BSD prior to starting the upgrade process and had hoped it would allow me to recover if anything went wrong. However, with the boot loader failing to find PC-BSD, my snapshot was lost.
* * * * *
OpenBSD 5.8 to 5.9
The OpenBSD operating system was the last project on my list to explore. Though it does seem to be technically possible to perform a live upgrade of the highly secure operating system, the documentation recommends performing a hybrid upgrade where we update the base operating system from an installation disc and live update third-party software packages. The OpenBSD installation media is 220MB in size. I installed the operating system with X and a window manager, then added a few packages to customize the installation.
The documentation provided explains how to upgrade OpenBSD 5.8 to version 5.9 step-by-step and the instructions worked exactly as laid out. Upgrading requires two reboots, one to initiate the upgrade process and one to boot into the new version of OpenBSD. Upgrading the base operating system took approximately ten minutes, including the two reboots. Upgrading the third-party packages took another minute or two. The only quirk I ran into was that I had to manually update my repository mirror information to gain access to the new packages available for OpenBSD 5.9. If this step is not done, then the pkg_add package manager will continue to pull in packages from the old repository we set up for OpenBSD 5.8.
* * * * *
In my previous trial I experimented with five operating systems and, despite a few issues, four of them successfully updated across major versions. I considered four out of five to be a success. This week I experimented with four operating systems and the results were split with two successfully completing live upgrades and two failing. OpenMandriva failed with a certain amount of grace, allowing me to continue to use the operating system. However, PC-BSD failed to upgrade in a way which left the operating system unable to boot even with file system snapshots in place. To a degree, PC-BSD failing to boot was my fault. When the update manager refused to perform the upgrade automatically, I could have left it at that. Attempting to push ahead with a manual install was what drove to the operating system over the edge and past the point of no return.
I had much better luck this week with Linux Mint. Though Linux Mint 16 was no longer supported and its repositories shut down, I was able to upgrade the distribution. I was quite happy to see Mint survived the live upgrade despite live updates not being the recommended path for upgrades. OpenBSD was probably the smoothest upgrade of the four. OpenBSD provides clear documentation, step-by-step instructions and the upgrade happens very quickly. The command line nature of the OpenBSD upgrade might be intimidating to newcomers, but it works as documented.
|Miscellaneous News (by Jesse Smith)
Ubuntu's snap packages, Fedora presents new upgrade method, Antergos drops 32-bit media, openSUSE adopts GCC 6 and GeckoLinux unveils new Rolling edition
People who have been looking for a practical way to use Ubuntu snap packages are in luck. One pioneering developer has packaged a development version of LibreOffice (LibreOffice 5.2 Beta) as a snap. The snap package can be installed alongside a stable version of the productivity suite, tested and removed without affecting other versions of LibreOffice. "The upcoming LibreOffice 5.2 packaged as a nice new snap package. This is pretty much a vanilla build of LibreOffice 5.2 Beta 2, using snapcraft, which is making packaging quite easy. Contains all the applications: Writer, Calc, Impress, Draw, Math, Base. Installs easily on the released current LTS version of Ubuntu 16.04. Allows you to test and play with the upcoming LibreOffice version to your heart's delight without having to switch to a development version of Ubuntu." Instructions for downloading and installing the LibreOffice snap package can be found on the Sky From Me blog.
Speaking of snap packages, it looks as though snaps will be showing up on multiple Linux distributions in the near future. The Ubuntu Insights website explains: "Developers from multiple Linux distributions and companies today announced collaboration on the snap universal Linux package format, enabling a single binary package to work perfectly and securely on any Linux desktop, server, cloud or device. This community is working at snapcraft.io to provide a single publication mechanism for any software in any Linux environment. This release quotes Dell, Samsung, the Linux Foundation, The Document Foundation, Krita, Mycroft, Horizon Computing, contributors to Arch, Debian, OpenWrt, Ubuntu, and several of their related distributions. According to the post, snap packages can currently be used on many distributions including Arch, Debian, Ubuntu and Ubuntu-based distributions. Snap packages are being tested and should soon work on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Gentoo, and openSUSE. Further details can be found on the Insights website.
* * * * *
Once Fedora 24 has been released (which should happen very soon), it will be possible for Fedora users to upgrade from version 23 to version 24 from within the distribution's graphical package manager. Fedora Magazine explains: "Shortly after the Fedora 24 release, you can upgrade to the newest Fedora Workstation using the built-in Software app (gnome-software). The Software app has always provided the ability to process updates. But to upgrade to the latest Fedora - for example, Fedora 22 to 23 - you had to use the command line. But that's about to change for users running a fully-updated Fedora 23 system. The Software app on Fedora 23 will soon let you upgrade your whole system to Fedora 24 without the command line." Details are available in the Fedora Magazine article.
* * * * *
The Antergos project released updated installation media last week, making snapshot 2016.06.14 available for users to download. The Antergos blog post accompanying the new snapshot mentions this will be the last time the project will publish 32-bit installation images. "We are discontinuing the 32-bit versions of our install media. This will be the last release that includes 32-bit media. This change applies to the install media only. We will continue to maintain 32-bit packages in our repository for the foreseeable future."
* * * * *
Antergos was not the only project last week to announce it is phasing out older technology. The openSUSE website features a post which says the distribution's rolling release edition (Tumbleweed) is migrating from version 5 to version 6 of the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). "Tumbleweed 20160613 snapshot will be the last snapshot to be based on GCC 5, according to the openSUSE Project's Dominique Leuenberger. GCC 6 will become the new default compiler, but the release date of the snapshot is difficult to predict right now because Tumbleweed is competing with builds allocated for the next Alpha 2 release of openSUSE Leap 42.2, which is scheduled to be release next week before the openSUSE Conference." Additional information on changes coming to openSUSE Tumbleweed can be found in the project's announcement.
* * * * *
The GeckoLinux project, which provides a desktop-oriented distribution based on openSUSE, has released a new version of GeckoLinux. The new version provides a rolling release model and is based on openSUSE's Tumbleweed branch. "GeckoLinux is pleased to announce the release of a new family of 'Rolling' spins, based on the openSUSE Tumbleweed distribution to complement the 'Static' spins that are based on openSUSE Leap. The openSUSE Tumbleweed branch is unique in the sphere of rolling Linux distributions thanks to the extensive and automated testing performed by the openQA. This results in a highly stable and yet extremely current Linux distribution, with multiple release snapshots every week. GeckoLinux 'Rolling' builds on the Tumbleweed base with all of the typical GeckoLinux configuration changes, a live installable ISO image, optimal software selection, polished defaults, and eight (8) customized spins for all of the major desktop environments." Specific information on each live spin can be found in the project's release announcement.
* * * * *
These and other news stories can be found on our Headlines page.
|Questions and Answers (by Jesse Smith)
Getting to know how the system works
Digging-deeper asks: I want to learn how Linux works, how all the pieces fit together. I've been running Ubuntu for about a year and I'm pretty comfortable with it and the command line. Where should I turn to next to education myself on Linux? I've heard of Linux From Scratch, but I'm not sure I know enough programming to handle it. Do you have some suggestions?
DistroWatch answers: Linux From Scratch (LFS) is a fine resource and there is nothing wrong with exploring it. I don't think you will need any programming experience to build LFS, just patience while you wait for the components to build from their source code. The LFS guide will certainly give you a lot of insight into the low-level components of a GNU/Linux operating system and the work which goes into making a Linux distribution. However, I think if you want to learn how to use Linux instead of how to build Linux, you might consider some alternatives.
When learning how to use a GNU/Linux operating system, I think you can start exploring with any distribution, including Ubuntu. Each distribution uses slightly different names for packages and may place files in different locations, but they tend to work in similar ways. So if you're comfortable with Ubuntu already, feel free to start exploring there. Continue to explore the command line, look into automating tasks with scripts, maybe set up a home file server and see where the journey leads.
If you want a more intense educational experience then you might want to explore a distribution which does less for you, but still does not require that you compile packages from source code (like LFS does). The Arch Linux distribution would probably suit the task and the Arch wiki has some of the best documentation in the Linux community. The first time you install Arch Linux (or any other distribution) I recommend installing it in a virtual machine to avoid messing up your existing operating system.
Finally, I would suggest looking at a couple of educational books. Off the top of my head, How Linux Works, A Practical Guide to the Linux Command Line and Linux Bible all come to mind as excellent learning resources. These books will begin by exploring the basics of the command line, take you through shell scripting, setting up services and generally becoming adapt at running a Linux desktop or server. While it can be fun to dive into learning an operating system on your own, I have found following a textbook means benefiting from the wisdom (not just the knowledge) of the authors.
* * * * *
Past Questions and Answers columns can be found in our Q&A Archive.
Bittorrent is a great way to transfer large files, particularly open source operating system images, from one place to another. Most bittorrent clients recover from dropped connections automatically, check the integrity of files and can re-download corrupted bits of data without starting a download over from scratch. These characteristics make bittorrent well suited for distributing open source operating systems, particularly to regions where Internet connections are slow or unstable.
Many Linux and BSD projects offer bittorrent as a download option, partly for the reasons listed above and partly because bittorrent's peer-to-peer nature takes some of the strain off the project's servers. However, some projects do not offer bittorrent as a download option. There can be several reasons for excluding bittorrent as an option. Some projects do not have enough time or volunteers, some may be restricted by their web host provider's terms of service. Whatever the reason, the lack of a bittorrent option puts more strain on a distribution's bandwidth and may prevent some people from downloading their preferred open source operating system.
With this in mind, DistroWatch plans to give back to the open source community by hosting and seeding bittorrent files. For now, we are hosting a small number of distribution torrents, listed below. The list of torrents offered will be updated each week and we invite readers to e-mail us with suggestions as to which distributions we should be hosting. When you message us, please place the word "Torrent" in the subject line, make sure to include a link to the ISO file you want us to seed. To help us maintain and grow this free service, please consider making a donation.
The table below provides a list of torrents we currently host. If you do not currently have a bittorrent client capable of handling the linked files, we suggest installing either the Transmission or KTorrent bittorrent clients.
Archives of our previously seeded torrents may be found here. All torrents we make available here are also listed on the very useful Linux Tracker website. Thanks to Linux Tracker we are able to share the following torrent statistics.
Torrent Corner statistics:
- Total torrents seeded: 205
- Total data uploaded: 37.4TB
|Released Last Week
Baruwa Enterprise Edition 6.8
Andrew Colin Kissa has announced the release of Baruwa Enterprise Edition (also called BaruwaOS), version 6.8, a new release of the project's commercial distribution built from the source code of Red Hat Enterprise Linux: "Today we are issuing Baruwa Enterprise Edition release - BaruwaOS 6.8. This release tracks the upstream base OS's update 6.8. Baruwa now supports the ACME client protocol. This allows for requesting of certificates from ACME compatible Certificate Authorities, such as CertBot formerly known as Let's Encrypt, a free and open CA which issues browser recognized certificates. Baruwa will now request Certbot certificates for the HTTPS and SMTP TLS services, if you do not have a CA issued certificate. Certbot certificates are supported by a wide range of browsers so you should no longer have the warnings generated when using the Baruwa CA auto generated certificates." Read the brief release announcement as well as the much more detailed release notes for further information. Free trial editions of BaruwaOS are available for download from the project's home page, while commercial variants start at US$58 per month.
The Robolinux project, a Debian-based desktop distribution, has announced the launch of Robolinux 8.5. The new release is available in four editions (Cinnamon, LXDE, MATE and Xfce) and is based on Debian 8 "Jessie". Past editions of Robolinux have been free to try, but required a purchase to install and this has changed with the latest release as the distribution is now free to install. "Robolinux is extremely pleased and excited to announce its new upgraded Robolinux 8.5 'Raptor' Cinnamon, Mate, Xfce & LXDE with 32- & 64-bit versions. Undoubtedly the biggest news is that all 16 Robolinux 7 & 8 Live versions now come with a free OS installer and can be downloaded for free on SourceForge. Please permit me to say it again: There is no more charge for our OS installer which was how we funded third party Linux application developers! Gaming enthusiasts will be thrilled because we added Steam to v8.5. We also updated Stealth VM and the Robolinux C Drive to VM for Windows XP, 7 & 10 so it works with VirtualBox 5.0 and above which is great news for Linux Mint and Ubuntu users! Please note: VirtualBox 5.0 is not yet compatible with Debian 8." Additional details can be found in the project's release announcement.
Parrot Security OS 3.0
Parrot Security OS 3.0 has been released. Parrot Security OS is a Debian-based distribution featuring a collection of tools designed for penetration testing, computer forensics, reverse engineering, hacking, privacy and cryptography. There is no release announcement about the project's major new release, but this features page provides useful information about the product: "'Forensic' boot option to avoid boot automounts; most famous digital forensic tools and frameworks out of the box; reliable acquisition and imaging tools; top-class analysis software; evidence management and reporting tools; disabled automount; software blockdev write protection system; custom anti-forensic tools; custom interfaces for GPG; custom interfaces for cryptsetup; support for LUKS, Truecrypt and VeraCrypt; NUKE patch for cryptsetup LUKS disks; encrypted system installation; AnonSurf; entire system anonymization; Tor and I2P out of the box; DNS requests anonymization...."
* * * * *
Development, unannounced and minor bug-fix releases
|Upcoming Releases and Announcements
Summary of expected upcoming releases
Revisiting 32-bit vs 64-bit OSes
About a year ago we asked our readers how many were using 32-bit operating systems verses 64-bit operating systems. Over the past year a handful of distributions have dropped (or are phasing out) 32-bit support. We would like to revisit the subject and find out how many of you are running 32-bit vs 64-bit operating systems.
If you are still using a 32-bit operating system, please let us know why in the comments. Is it a matter of having older hardware, trying to save space in memory or have you run into trouble using 64-bit software?
You can see the results of our previous poll on IPv6 adoption here. All previous poll results can be found in our poll archives.
32-bit vs 64-bit x86
|I use 32-bit only: ||233 (10%)|
| I use 64-bit only: ||1293 (55%)|
| I use a mix of 32- and 64-bit: ||819 (35%)|
| I use another architecture: ||7 (0%)|
Improved package searches
One search feature people have been requesting for a while is the ability to find distributions which offer a package that is newer than (or older than) a given version. For example, perhaps you have wanted to find distributions shipping VLC 2.2 or newer or distributions which ship older versions of Wordpress.
Last week we updated our Search page to make package searches more flexible. People can now search for distributions which include a package newer than, older than, similar to or exactly equal to a specified version. The default continues to be finding packages of a similar version. When no version is specified, the system will try to find packages close to the upstream project's latest release.
We are continuing to make our Search page faster and more flexible, but with any new features come unexpected bugs. Please let us know if you experience any problems.
* * * * *
June 2016 DistroWatch.com donation: Devil-Linux
We are pleased to announce the recipient of the June 2016 DistroWatch.com donation is Devil-Linux. The project receives US$400.00 in cash.
The Devil-Linux project describes itself as follows: "Devil-Linux is a distribution which boots and runs completely from CD-ROM or USB flash drive. The configuration can be saved to a floppy diskette or a USB pen drive. Devil-Linux was originally intended to be a dedicated firewall/router but now Devil-Linux can also be used as a dedicated server for many applications. Attaching an optional hard drive is easy, and many network services are included in the distribution. Because boot/OS and (optionally) configuration (in a tarball) are stored on read-only media, Devil-Linux offers high security with easy and safe upgrades, the system being fully configurable with no writeable system device.
Launched in 2004, this monthly donations programme is a DistroWatch initiative to support free and open-source software projects and operating systems with cash contributions. Readers are welcome to nominate their favourite project for future donations. Those readers who wish to contribute towards these donations, please use our advertising page to make a payment (PayPal, credit cards, Yandex Money and crypto currencies are accepted). Here is the list of the projects that have received a DistroWatch donation since the launch of the programme (figures in US dollars):
Since the launch of the Donations Program in March 2004, DistroWatch has made 145 donations for a total of US$46,081 to various open-source software projects.
- 2004: GnuCash ($250), Quanta Plus ($200), PCLinuxOS ($300), The GIMP ($300), Vidalinux ($200), Fluxbox ($200), K3b ($350), Arch Linux ($300), Kile KDE LaTeX Editor ($100) and UNICEF - Tsunami Relief Operation ($340)
- 2005: Vim ($250), AbiWord ($220), BitTorrent ($300), NDISwrapper ($250), Audacity ($250), Debian GNU/Linux ($420), GNOME ($425), Enlightenment ($250), MPlayer ($400), Amarok ($300), KANOTIX ($250) and Cacti ($375)
- 2006: Gambas ($250), Krusader ($250), FreeBSD Foundation ($450), GParted ($360), Doxygen ($260), LilyPond ($250), Lua ($250), Gentoo Linux ($500), Blender ($500), Puppy Linux ($350), Inkscape ($350), Cape Linux Users Group ($130), Mandriva Linux ($405, a Powerpack competition), Digikam ($408) and Sabayon Linux ($450)
- 2007: GQview ($250), Kaffeine ($250), sidux ($350), CentOS ($400), LyX ($350), VectorLinux ($350), KTorrent ($400), FreeNAS ($350), lighttpd ($400), Damn Small Linux ($350), NimbleX ($450), MEPIS Linux ($300), Zenwalk Linux ($300)
- 2008: VLC ($350), Frugalware Linux ($340), cURL ($300), GSPCA ($400), FileZilla ($400), MythDora ($500), Linux Mint ($400), Parsix GNU/Linux ($300), Miro ($300), GoblinX ($250), Dillo ($150), LXDE ($250)
- 2009: Openbox ($250), Wolvix GNU/Linux ($200), smxi ($200), Python ($300), SliTaz GNU/Linux ($200), LiVES ($300), Osmo ($300), LMMS ($250), KompoZer ($360), OpenSSH ($350), Parted Magic ($350) and Krita ($285)
- 2010: Qimo 4 Kids ($250), Squid ($250), Libre Graphics Meeting ($300), Bacula ($250), FileZilla ($300), GCompris ($352), Xiph.org ($250), Clonezilla ($250), Debian Multimedia ($280), Geany ($300), Mageia ($470), gtkpod ($300)
- 2011: CGSecurity ($300), OpenShot ($300), Imagination ($250), Calibre ($300), RIPLinuX ($300), Midori ($310), vsftpd ($300), OpenShot ($350), Trinity Desktop Environment ($300), LibreCAD ($300), LiVES ($300), Transmission ($250)
- 2012: GnuPG ($350), ImageMagick ($350), GNU ddrescue ($350), Slackware Linux ($500), MATE ($250), LibreCAD ($250), BleachBit ($350), cherrytree ($260), Zim ($335), nginx ($250), LFTP ($250), Remastersys ($300)
- 2013: MariaDB ($300), Linux From Scratch ($350), GhostBSD ($340), DHCP ($300), DOSBox ($250), awesome ($300), DVDStyler ($280), Tor ($350), Tiny Tiny RSS ($350), FreeType ($300), GNU Octave ($300), Linux Voice ($510)
- 2014: QupZilla ($250), Pitivi ($370), MediaGoblin ($350), TrueCrypt ($300), Krita ($340), SME Server ($350), OpenStreetMap ($350), iTALC ($350), KDE ($400), The Document Foundation ($400), Tails ($350)
- 2015: AWStats ($300), Haiku ($300), Xiph.Org ($300), GIMP ($350), Kodi ($300), Devuan ($300), hdparm ($350), HardenedBSD ($400), TestDisk ($450)
- 2016: KeePass ($400), Slackware Live Edition ($406), Devil-Linux ($400)
* * * * *
Distributions added to waiting list
- Escuelas Linux. Escuelas Linux is a Spanish language distribution based on Bodhi Linux. It is designed to be used in educational environments.
- LibraZiK. A French community-based distribution, oriented on audio creation, based on Debian Jessie.
* * * * *
DistroWatch database summary
* * * * *
This concludes this week's issue of DistroWatch Weekly. The next instalment will be published on Monday, 27 June 2016. To contact the authors please send e-mail to:
- Jesse Smith (feedback, questions and suggestions: distribution reviews/submissions, questions and answers, tips and tricks)
- Ladislav Bodnar (feedback, questions, donations, comments)
- Bruce Patterson (podcast)
|Linux Foundation Training
|• Issue 823 (2019-07-15): Debian 10, finding 32-bit packages on a 64-bit system, Will Cooke discusses Ubuntu's desktop, IBM finalizes purchase of Red Hat|
|• Issue 822 (2019-07-08): Mageia 7, running development branches of distros, Mint team considers Snap, UBports to address Google account access|
|• Issue 821 (2019-07-01): OpenMandriva 4.0, Ubuntu's plan for 32-bit packages, Fedora Workstation improvements, DragonFly BSD's smaller kernel memory|
|• Issue 820 (2019-06-24): Clear Linux and Guix System 1.0.1, running Android applications using Anbox, Zorin partners with Star Labs, Red Hat explains networking bug, Ubuntu considers no longer updating 32-bit packages|
|• Issue 819 (2019-06-17): OS108 and Venom, renaming multiple files, checking live USB integrity, working with Fedora's Modularity, Ubuntu replacing Chromium package with snap|
|• Issue 818 (2019-06-10): openSUSE 15.1, improving boot times, FreeBSD's status report, DragonFly BSD reduces install media size|
|• Issue 817 (2019-06-03): Manjaro 18.0.4, Ubuntu Security Podcast, new Linux laptops from Dell and System76, Entroware Apollo|
|• Issue 816 (2019-05-27): Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.0, creating firewall rules, Antergos shuts down, Matthew Miller answers questions about Fedora|
|• Issue 815 (2019-05-20): Sabayon 19.03, Clear Linux's developer features, Red Hat explains MDS flaws, an overview of mobile distro options|
|• Issue 814 (2019-05-13): Fedora 30, distributions publish Firefox fixes, CentOS publishes roadmap to 8.0, Debian plans to use Wayland by default|
|• Issue 813 (2019-05-06): ROSA R11, MX seeks help with systemd-shim, FreeBSD tests unified package management, interview with Gael Duval|
|• Issue 812 (2019-04-29): Ubuntu MATE 19.04, setting up a SOCKS web proxy, Scientific Linux discontinued, Red Hat takes over Java LTS support|
|• Issue 811 (2019-04-22): Alpine 3.9.2, rsync examples, Ubuntu working on ZFS support, Debian elects new Project Leader, Obarun releases S6 tools|
|• Issue 810 (2019-04-15): SolydXK 201902, Bedrock Linux 0.7.2, Fedora phasing out Python 2, NetBSD gets virtual machine monitor|
|• Issue 809 (2019-04-08): PCLinuxOS 2019.02, installing Falkon and problems with portable packages, Mint offers daily build previews, Ubuntu speeds up Snap packages|
|• Issue 808 (2019-04-01): Solus 4.0, security benefits and drawbacks to using a live distro, Gentoo gets GNOME ports working without systemd, Redox OS update|
|• Issue 807 (2019-03-25): Pardus 17.5, finding out which user changed a file, new Budgie features, a tool for browsing FreeBSD's sysctl values|
|• Issue 806 (2019-03-18): Kubuntu vs KDE neon, Nitrux's znx, notes on Debian's election, SUSE becomes an independent entity|
|• Issue 805 (2019-03-11): EasyOS 1.0, managing background services, Devuan team debates machine ID file, Ubuntu Studio works to remain an Ubuntu Community Edition|
|• Issue 804 (2019-03-04): Condres OS 19.02, securely erasing hard drives, new UBports devices coming in 2019, Devuan to host first conference|
|• Issue 803 (2019-02-25): Septor 2019, preventing windows from stealing focus, NetBSD and Nitrux experiment with virtual machines, pfSense upgrading to FreeBSD 12 base|
|• Issue 802 (2019-02-18): Slontoo 18.07.1, NetBSD tests newer compiler, Fedora packaging Deepin desktop, changes in Ubuntu Studio|
|• Issue 801 (2019-02-11): Project Trident 18.12, the meaning of status symbols in top, FreeBSD Foundation lists ongoing projects, Plasma Mobile team answers questions|
|• Issue 800 (2019-02-04): FreeNAS 11.2, using Ubuntu Studio software as an add-on, Nitrux developing znx, matching operating systems to file systems|
|• Issue 799 (2019-01-28): KaOS 2018.12, Linux Basics For Hackers, Debian 10 enters freeze, Ubuntu publishes new version for IoT devices|
|• Issue 798 (2019-01-21): Sculpt OS 18.09, picking a location for swap space, Solus team plans ahead, Fedora trying to get a better user count|
|• Issue 797 (2019-01-14): Reborn OS 2018.11.28, TinyPaw-Linux 1.3, dealing with processes which make the desktop unresponsive, Debian testing Secure Boot support|
|• Issue 796 (2019-01-07): FreeBSD 12.0, Peppermint releases ISO update, picking the best distro of 2018, roundtable interview with Debian, Fedora and elementary developers|
|• Issue 795 (2018-12-24): Running a Pinebook, interview with Bedrock founder, Alpine being ported to RISC-V, Librem 5 dev-kits shipped|
|• Issue 794 (2018-12-17): Void 20181111, avoiding software bloat, improvements to HAMMER2, getting application overview in GNOME Shell|
|• Issue 793 (2018-12-10): openSUSE Tumbleweed, finding non-free packages, Debian migrates to usrmerge, Hyperbola gets FSF approval|
|• Issue 792 (2018-1203): GhostBSD 18.10, when to use swap space, DragonFly BSD's wireless support, Fedora planning to pause development schedule|
|• Issue 791 (2018-11-26): Haiku R1 Beta1, default passwords on live media, Slax and Kodachi update their media, dual booting DragonFly BSD on EFI|
|• Issue 790 (2018-11-19): NetBSD 8.0, Bash tips and short-cuts, Fedora's networking benchmarked with FreeBSD, Ubuntu 18.04 to get ten years of support|
|• Issue 789 (2018-11-12): Fedora 29 Workstation and Silverblue, Haiku recovering from server outage, Fedora turns 15, Debian publishes updated media|
|• Issue 788 (2018-11-05): Clu Linux Live 6.0, examining RAM consumpion, finding support for older CPUs, more Steam support for running Windows games on Linux, update from Solus team|
|• Issue 787 (2018-10-29): Lubuntu 18.10, limiting application access to specific users, Haiku hardware compatibility list, IBM purchasing Red Hat|
|• Issue 786 (2018-10-22): elementary OS 5.0, why init keeps running, DragonFly BSD enables virtual machine memory resizing, KDE neon plans to drop older base|
|• Issue 785 (2018-10-15): Reborn OS 2018.09, Nitrux 1.0.15, swapping hard drives between computers, feren OS tries KDE spin, power savings coming to Linux|
|• Issue 784 (2018-10-08): Hamara 2.1, improving manual pages, UBports gets VoIP app, Fedora testing power saving feature|
|• Issue 783 (2018-10-01): Quirky 8.6, setting up dual booting with Ubuntu and FreeBSD, Lubuntu switching to LXQt, Mint works on performance improvements|
|• Issue 782 (2018-09-24): Bodhi Linux 5.0.0, Elive 3.0.0, Solus publishes ISO refresh, UBports invites feedback, Linux Torvalds plans temporary vacation|
|• Issue 781 (2018-09-17): Linux Mint 3 "Debian Edition", file systems for SSDs, MX makes installing Flatpaks easier, Arch team answers questions, Mageia reaches EOL|
|• Issue 780 (2018-09-10): Netrunner 2018.08 Rolling, Fedora improves language support, how to customize Kali Linux, finding the right video drivers|
|• Issue 779 (2018-09-03): Redcore 1806, keeping ISO downloads safe from tampering, Lubuntu makes Calamares more flexible, Ubuntu improves GNOME performance|
|• Issue 778 (2018-08-27): GuixSD 0.15.0, ReactOS 0.4.9, Steam supports Windows games on Linux, Haiku plans for beta, merging disk partitions|
|• Issue 777 (2018-08-20): YunoHost 126.96.36.199, limiting process resource usage, converting file systems on Fedora, Debian turns 25, Lubuntu migrating to Wayland|
|• Issue 776 (2018-08-13): NomadBSD 1.1, Maximum storage limits on Linux, openSUSE extends life for 42.3, updates to the Librem 5 phone interface|
|• Issue 775 (2018-08-06): Secure-K OS 18.5, Linux is about choice, Korora tests community spin, elementary OS hires developer, ReactOS boots on Btrfs|
|• Issue 774 (2018-07-30): Ubuntu MATE & Ubuntu Budgie 18.04, upgrading software from source, Lubuntu shifts focus, NetBSD changes support policy|
|• Issue 773 (2018-07-23): Peppermint OS 9, types of security used by different projects, Mint reacts to bugs in core packages, Slackware turns 25|
|• Issue 772 (2018-07-16): Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre 0.2.4, UBports running desktop applications, OpenBSD auto-joins wi-fi networks, boot environments and zedenv|
|• Full list of all issues|
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|Random Distribution |
Subgraph OS is a Debian-based Linux distribution which provides several security, anonymous web browsing and hardening features. Subgraph OS uses a hardened Linux kernel, application firewall to block specific executables from accessing the network and forces all Internet traffic through the Tor network. The distribution's file manager features tools to remove meta-data from files and integrates with the OnionShare file sharing application. The Icedove e-mail client is set up to automatically work with Enigmail for encrypting e-mails.