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1 • su and/or login as root from tty (by LiuYan on 2018-08-27 01:30:59 GMT from China) |
For my PC or laptop, I'm the owner and the only user of them, so I use su, and/or login as root from tty ( No need to logout GUI and login as root to start new session).
For servers, I usually use ssh and login as root directly, sounds dangerous, but yes, I like it.
2 • su vs sudo (by TuxRaider on 2018-08-27 01:33:25 GMT from United States)
i kind of dont trust sudo, it seems to be sort of a convenience that sacrifices security in that can be leave a system open for abuse, it can remember admin rights so if the user uses sudo then has to walk away from their keyboard for a while some malicious character can get on there and open a terminal and get sudo without the password and do bad things, not sure if that includes ssh or not because i rarely use sudo and then its only if su has been locked making sudo the only way for root access
so my preferred method is su in a terminal because once i exit out it does not remember the password
3 • Heads and su (by cykodrone on 2018-08-27 01:49:05 GMT from Canada)
Love heads, it works on my machine, wifi and all, but (isn't there always a but, lol) I wish they would update it a little more often, or at least enable TB to update itself once you are up and running. I seriously do not trust TAILS, not the distro or the folks behind it, but the under the hood spyware bloat written by a (shall remain nameless) corporation who has contracts with many law enforcement and government agencies.
Totally hate sudo, was Canonical's answer to making MS refugees feel more at home (hand holding simplicity), but introduced many possible security holes at the same time. I use gksu for custom made launchers requiring root privileges. I still begrudgingly service a few MS machines, I hate them, they are just as annoying and fiddly as they were years ago. MS is actually getting less intuitive and more complicated, if it aint broke, don't fix it.
4 • Norcux OS (by Hearmesleep on 2018-08-27 02:25:30 GMT from United States)
At the bottom of the page for the Norcux distro, it asks for votes to brigade distrowatch rankings. I thought this was frowned upon.
5 • sudo (by Jesse on 2018-08-27 02:30:42 GMT from Canada)
@2: If you don't want sudo to remember your password you can make an alias for the command to "sudo -k" then it always forgets your password/prompts again.
Or you can use doas which does not cache credentials.
6 • su - vs sudo (by M.Z. on 2018-08-27 02:41:08 GMT from United States)
One of the main reasons I prefer su - is that I can easily run a few admin tasks in a row without more password use. I think I had an issue with than in sudo in the past so I tend to avoid it. Using su - just feels more flexible & useful to me.
7 • su - vs sudo (by pengxiun on 2018-08-27 03:19:15 GMT from New Zealand)
su - for me every time.
(4 keystrokes + password vs 4 keystrokes + password)
I have the terminal open and perform many admin tasks consecutively while I am at the system. exit the terminal when I leave the system (physically) or have finished with admin for the time being.
sudo for me just does not feel secure. If your user password is discovered, say goodby to system security.
Likewise if you use the same password for user and root (heaven forbid).
8 • Unauthorized access (by DaveW on 2018-08-27 03:22:22 GMT from United States)
@2: If I was working in an environment where some malicious person could physically access my computer, I would put it to sleep when walking away from it. Then require my password to regain access. Don't care whether or not sudo/su was being used. You can even define a hotkey to make the sleep command a single key stroke.
9 • su - vs sudo (by Gordon on 2018-08-27 03:23:24 GMT from Australia)
They gave me sudo access at work. I'm not sure they are aware of "sudo su";-)
10 • ReactOS review (by RJA on 2018-08-27 03:40:39 GMT from United States)
"though the interface tended to lock up temporarily whenever the disk was being heavily accessed." -> Jesse, sounds like it's in PIO mode. In PIO mode, expect 100 percent CPU priority (or near there) with heavy disk access. The Windows NT architecture, has a feature where if there's multiple ATA I/O errors, it drops to PIO mode! That usually means a bad ATA cable connection. Maybe an extremely buggy ATA driver.
11 • Norcux OS (by Angel on 2018-08-27 03:56:30 GMT from Philippines)
@4, Seems like a young kid with a new passion. Maybe doesn't know better.
I've been trying KDE distros, so I installed it. He says it's Alpha , but its' quite good. Probably should be, it like Arch for the lazy (like me). Runs lighter than Netrunner, (4.6 vs. 7.8 GB memory at idle,) about the same as KDE Neon. Easier install (my experience only) than Antergos, Manjaro and other Arch-based distros. One problem I found: Fails to install due to failure to access AUR. It needs AUR but he forgot to enable it. After enabling AUR and updating, it installs cleanly.
I would give him feedback on the install problem as well as your comment, but I don't sign up for Reddit or other social sites just so I can comment.
12 • sudo bash (by Gorhi on 2018-08-27 04:34:43 GMT from Romania)
I know that "sudo bash" or "sudo sh" or other shell can achieve a similar result as su but I don't know the difference.
I used it sometimes when I can't make some longer more complicated command to work directly with sudo which I have been using since I switched to kubuntu.
13 • su -, su, sudo, sudo su (by mmphosis on 2018-08-27 05:22:58 GMT from Canada)
I've only recently, as in the past few years, learned about su. I didn't know about su -
> When we use su - the su command sets up the shell environment as though we had originally logged in as the specified user. It would be just like we had logged out and then signed in as a different user.
I learned something new today -- thank you. I am going to use su - from now on.
> When it comes to performing administrative tasks on Linux, there are a few different common approaches. One is to use the sudo command to temporarily gain access to run a single command. Another is to use the su command to switch to a privileged user account and run commands interactively. When it comes to managing your computer system, which approach do you use?
Maybe I am confused. Are most people always logged in with an admin account? -- I wouldn't do that. For the mostpart, I am logged in as a regular user without sudo privileges. If I want to use sudo to run say apt-get, I login in to an admin account that has sudo privilege using "su - admin" and then do "sudo apt-get ...". If I want to run a bunch of commands interactively as root, I've been using "sudo bash" which seems similar to "sudo su" (reading the man page, su lets you become superuser unless you specify a username.) If I am feeling really paranoid, I'll setup sudo to always ask for a password, everytime.
user$ sudo su
[sudo] password for user:
user is not in the sudoers file. This incident will be reported.
user$ su - admin
admin$ su -
su: Authentication failure
admin$ sudo su -
I am here to learn. Anyone other than me feel like they don't know what they're doing? And if you do know what you're doing, I am open to criticism, advice, or any piece of helpful knowledge. :)
14 • Logout is a noun. (by Big Browse on 2018-08-27 05:29:39 GMT from United States)
One of the options listed is "I logout and start a new session as root". According to the Oxford dictionary, "logout" is a noun. A verb should have been used instead. You guys talk over my head about Linux every day, so it is only fitting that I say something over your heads every once and a while.
15 • i am root (by Edgy McDangerman on 2018-08-27 06:30:19 GMT from Australia)
I don't use a regular account, I just use root for everything. Less typing and more productivity. I also use Suicide Linux, no time for safety in this day and age.
Does anyone else turn off their firewall?
16 • sudo is good just for systems with multiple users (by Farhad Mohammadi Majd on 2018-08-27 07:02:32 GMT from Iran)
I am the only one that touch this system, I use Debian and always log-in as root in TTY for managing system, like running 'aptitude', I always add 'nomodeset' to grub to increase font size.
17 • su, su- sudo & re. 14 (by Sondar on 2018-08-27 08:58:30 GMT from United Kingdom)
Hardly ever use 'su' but often use ' su -' or sudo depending on whether single or multiple manipulations are envisaged, ie exactly as Jesse suggests.
As for BB, No.14, have tended to use the hyphenated form, viz, log-in, although a straw poll of the more trustworthy media sources is still showing the two-word 'log in' form. Contrarily, most trusted literary sources show 'log-out/log out', as 'logout'. Nice to see concern for the language from across the pond; all we need to do now is teach folks to use the correct form of the verb! I say this as I was sat at my k/b...!
18 • Don’t care, but please use one of them (by Tim on 2018-08-27 09:35:37 GMT from United States)
As to the basic question of su - vs sudo, I have never really cared that much. I guess I like su - a little better, but not enough that I’ve ever bothered changing a distro’s default behavior.
What I can’t understand is the number of people who bypass basic security principles because they can’t be bothered to type a password. That’s crazy to me, and I hope for the best for you.
19 • Basic security is to REMOVE "features". (by OS2_user on 2018-08-27 10:36:52 GMT from United States)
@ 18 "... bypass basic security principles because they can't be bothered to type a password. That's crazy to me, and I hope for the best for you."
NOT typing passwords has been the best way for 40 years now, ever since PERSONAL computers were out, instead of time-sharing on mainframes. And it works for about a billion people every day.
Now, try to keep the word "PERSONAL" in mind: if you're tending servers, that's different.
By the way, just look at all the "apps" on Google Play recently which do massive spying.
Good security practices are not simply typing in a password, but dodging all the modern "cool" features that are the major risks.
You guys must prove for Linux that my typing in a password is cost-effective use of time given low risk. To do that, you must ignore that I and anyone can safely use Windows without by removing its many "features" that simply invite compromise besides nuisance, starting with "Messenger".
20 • Clarifying #19: (by OS2_user on 2018-08-27 11:03:31 GMT from United States)
I now see a couple places in my text sure to be attacked -- writing is kind of like an OS, there's always holes left no matter how careful!
> "install malicious software as root" -- X out "as root", only gives you a place to quibble; the below also applies:
> "then it too would be totally compromised" -- change that to: "then ways would be found for it too to be totally compromised even from the most minimal userland"
You can doubtless still find other points to quibble, but please skip those two.
21 • The sudo approach has some disadvantages? (by some random user on 2018-08-27 11:54:40 GMT from United States)
While the sudo approach has some advantages, what are its disadvantages?
22 • @14: (by dragonmouth on 2018-08-27 12:45:08 GMT from United States)
Oxford Doctionary may define "logout" as a noun. However, like all dictionaries, it is at least slightly behind times. "to login" and "to logout" have been used as verbs in the IT community for at least 20 years, if not longer.
BTW - does the Oxford Dictionary still list "Google" as a proper noun? As of couple of years ago, "to google" entered the vernacular as a synonym for "search".
23 • The NixOS model (by teresaejunior on 2018-08-27 13:04:44 GMT from Denmark)
I wanted to manage my system the NixOS way, but I hate the idea of compiling everything, when there are stable distros with so many binaries available. My solution? Provision Ubuntu/Debian with Ansible! You create YAML files containing the users, packages, services, etc. you want in your system, and just run the playbook!
24 • @21 (by OstroL on 2018-08-27 13:54:32 GMT from Poland)
Even though the computer is yours, the system in it is not yours, but someone called root, and to manipulate that system, you have to become by using an app/command (su, sudo...) and give a password you yourself had created. You the user-owner becomes someone else to install/uninstall an app you own.
25 • sudo and NixOS (by Jesse on 2018-08-27 14:38:49 GMT from Canada)
@21: There are virtually no disadvantages to using sudo, assuming it is used properly. The sudo config syntax is complicated and for multi-user systems it is more likely you'll make a mistake setting it up, compared to using su or doas. As others have pointed out here, sudo remembers your credentials by default, so you need to tell it to forget you or lock your terminal if you walk away from the computer. But the same applies to su as well.
The main advantages are fine grained controls and logging, making it ideal for systems where multiple users should be able to perform admin actions (or a subset of admin actions) while su is all or nothing.
@23: You don't need to compile software when using NixOS. The Nix package manager installs binary packages.
26 • @15 Jesse - DistroWatch Bias (by tman on 2018-08-27 15:14:18 GMT from United States)
Hey Jesse, how come Suicide Linux isn't in your rankings? Shouldn't it be #1? ;-)
27 • Root & good security (by M.Z. on 2018-08-27 15:32:31 GMT from United States)
"...WHY shouldn't I run as root all the time in Linux?"
Well for that matter, why doesn't everyone leave every door they have unlocked all the time? I mean what are the chances that someone will steal your car or come into your house/apartment & take your TV or whatever?
The answer obviously depends a fair amount on the context. If you park your car unlocked in New York City, Chicago, or LA you'll get hit by your dumb security thinking, especially at night. It's very risky to ignore security of that sort in a major city where there are more chances to run into a bad apple.
Are you telling us all that you think your OS is in a tiny village that has no known theft? Fine. Do whatever you want & feel comfortable with.
It's your Personal Computer, but the fact remains that folks with a lot more security expertise than you put those locks on the door for a reason. Those folks with actual security expertise consider privilege escalation to be a big & important class of security vulnerabilities/bugs.
Do as you please with your personal system, just try to show enough class not to wander around telling everyone that your "know the real truth about vaccination that experts won't tell you" or some other tin foil hat nonsense. It's a bad practice to run as root, & it's an epic act of ignorance not to get your family vaccinated or to intentionally leave your doors unlocked in the big city.
28 • disadvantages (pitfalls) to using sudo (by tim on 2018-08-27 15:47:51 GMT from United States)
@25 sudo vim
opens the door to possibility of non-logged shell escapes, yes?
29 • sudo (by Jesse on 2018-08-27 16:05:55 GMT from Canada)
@28: What you're describing is not a disadvantage to using sudo over su because the exact same limitation is shared by su. You get zero logging or restrictions with su, so you're in the same boat.
30 • GuixSD (by Pascual on 2018-08-27 16:43:35 GMT from United Kingdom)
The first ever GuixSD review and it didn't even get past the installation.
No GNU for you. Sad.
31 • I only use sudo to run systemctl (by CS on 2018-08-27 17:10:51 GMT from United States)
sudo vim? Meh.
sudo bash? Who cares?
sudo systemctl restart apache2? Now we've got a flame war started.
32 • Norcux OS (by GB_2 on 2018-08-27 17:11:43 GMT from Germany)
@11 You can visit the IRC or Discord Server (no need to sign up).
33 • sudo vs su... (by BSDuser on 2018-08-27 17:59:42 GMT from United States)
I always ssh into my servers and only use sudo for all my admin needs. After which, if I have several commands that solely require 'root' access for any length of time, I'll execute "sudo -i", and after I'm finished with all my admin tasks, I'll "exit" out of both 'root' and 'user' accounts (consecutively) in order to return back to my 'regularly scheduled programming'.
34 • Who owns your computer? (by OstroL on 2018-08-27 18:30:04 GMT from Poland)
Who owns your computer? Of course, it is yours. It is your "personal" computer. Is it really? The system you use is owned by root, not you.
You may own the contents of your username folder, but that folder is also owned by root.
35 • @32, GB_2 Norcux OS feedback (by Angel on 2018-08-27 18:35:10 GMT from Philippines)
I guess there's no need, since you are here. Your distro runs very nicely. I added kdeplasma-addons for the dashboard menu, and latte dock. Other than themes and wallpaper, nothing else.
36 • Norcux OS (by GB_2 on 2018-08-27 18:43:24 GMT from Germany)
@35 What exactly didn't work?
37 • sudo /su (by Ricky on 2018-08-27 19:55:46 GMT from Netherlands)
I tend to run sudo alone for one off commands, eg; `sudo poweroff` is where it's mostly used. I never run `su` directly though. If i want to elevate to a root shell, i only use `sudo su -`.
But that's for my personal desktop machine. If i'm setting up a server, i will NEVER even install the sudo package for many reasons.
38 • Circular Reasoning (by M.Z. on 2018-08-27 20:52:58 GMT from United States)
@34 - OstroL
That's called 'Circular reasoning' & it indicates a weak argument. Who owns root? The one with the root password of course. On all my PCs that would be me. On the Windows PCs I run GIS on, it's someone else that has equivalent admin access. All is as it should be & system permissions are in place for a reason & not having instant system access because of system permissions doesn't invalidate ownership. In fact having solid system permissions make the system more mine, because the 'locks on the door' make sure no simple bug exploit allows others access to my system.
39 • ...or root 'Masked-man fallacy' (by M.Z. on 2018-08-27 21:38:18 GMT from United States)
Even better answer to @34
" Premise 1: Lois Lane believes that Superman can fly.
Premise 2: Lois Lane does not believe that Clark Kent can fly.
Conclusion: Therefore Superman and Clark Kent are not the same person."
Then we substitute:
Premise 1: User doesn't have instant system wide access.
Premise 2: Root does have instant system wide access.
Conclusion: Therefore user has no control of the system.
Still a really stupid conclusion if you don't ask who does have root access.
40 • Voted other because there’s no All of the Above (by TheTKS on 2018-08-27 22:57:47 GMT from Canada)
Depends on which distro I’m in, which user I am (and what priveleges they have), and what I’m trying to do. I’ve used sudo, su, su -, sudo su, doas, log out and then log in as root, and I might have even done sudo su-. I don’t deeply understand the permission differences between and capabilities of each, though. That’s something I’m still learning, and suspect I will be learning for a long time.
Nouns vs verbs vs adjectives: “log in” and “log out” are verbs. “Login” is not a verb and not even a noun: “What’s your login?” is really short for “What’s your login name?” or similar, in which case “login” is an adjective. Just because “login” has been used as a verb in IT for years, doesn’t make it correct; it means IT is happy to live with sloppy usage. I sometimes write it that way, too (by mistake), but I don’t get worked up about it, but nor do I try to convince anyone that it is correct.
Feel free to correct any of the usage or grammar mistakes I undoubtedly made here, and let the arguing continue. I’ll enjoy reading it.
41 • Su and sudo (by Antony on 2018-08-27 23:21:04 GMT from Australia)
Unfortunately for unix su is a bit of a sledgehammer to crack nuts and doesn't have the granularity of more sophisticated systems like openvms or even solaris with rbac (now copied by linux).
Sudo is an attempt to limit su access but in my experience it's more often implemented as a mimic of su because administrators can't be bothered to lock it down by specifying which commands a sudo user can perform.i do security auditing.
Personally using sudo on your private machines is just a waste if time. Put yourself in the wheel group (bsd) and su when you need to.
Beware of 'su -' because it picks up the full path & environment of the target user and any malicious aliases or such are then available to you. '"alias ls='rm -fr'" lol
42 • Making "su -" Terminal Session Obvious (by Bruce Fowler on 2018-08-28 00:42:01 GMT from United States)
I often have two or more terminal windows open. If I need admin action, I "su -" in one of them and do whatever is necessary, then exit. But for root, I have a very distinctive prompt (red!) in root's .bashrc, so it is hard to forget which user is live in that terminal session. vis> PS1="\[\e[1;37;41m\]\u\[\e[0m\]\\$\w: "
43 • Making "su -" Terminal Session Obvious (by Bruce Fowler on 2018-08-28 00:42:01 GMT from United States)
I often have two or more terminal windows open. If I need admin action, I "su -" in one of them and do whatever is necessary, then exit. But for root, I have a very distinctive prompt (red!) in root's .bashrc, so it is hard to forget which user is live in that terminal session.
44 • @36, Norcux OS (by Angel on 2018-08-28 02:31:27 GMT from Philippines)
I think I made a premature, and wrong, assumption. The installer failed with a message about no access to the AUR. I quit the installer, ran pacman -Sy and got the same message. After enabling the AUR repo in Pamac, pacman updated fine and the installation finished. But since you asked about exactly what, I installed again on a VM and didn't get the error. Installation was smooth. So I believe it was just a temporary failure to connect. My bad.
System is running fine. Couldn't mount shared folder on virtualbox, but reinstalling guest additions fixed that. Also, it's not asking for a sudo password before performing root actions. Going by this week's discussion here on this site, I don't know whether that's a bug or a feature. :-)
45 • Non-Free Drivers (by penguinx64 on 2018-08-28 03:24:11 GMT from Bahrain)
I want my Linux Distro to work Out of the Box, every time, first try after I install it. For me, no Wifi is a dealbreker for Linux Distros. One example is WattOS. I really like the idea of an OS that isn't a resource hog and improves the battery life in my laptop. But my house is Wifi connected and it's the ONLY way I can connect to the internet. Not to pick on WattOS in particular. There are many other distros with this problem. Crux is another example. In the past, I've had to connect my laptop to the router with a Cat5 cable and start a long journey in search of drivers, then it's hit or miss when I find some that might or might not work. Sound familiar to Windows users? It's easier to try different distros until I find one that just works. This is why I use Linux Mint. it always works first try with no hassles. To stress the importance of this, my Kindle Fire tablet gets it right. When I click on Settings, "Wireless" is the first item that appears at the top of the list. While many Linux distros strive to be free Open Source, there should at least be the OPTION to install Non-Free Drivers during installation. Debian gets this right, by asking if you want to install Non-Free drivers at the beginning of the install process. Somthing developers should consider if you ever want YOUR distro to appear in the DistroWatch Page Hit Ranking Top Ten.
46 • Non-Free Drivers @45 (by pengxiun on 2018-08-28 04:05:09 GMT from New Zealand)
"I want my Linux Distro to work Out of the Box"
All well and good if that can happen.
To get your Linux OOTB experience, you really should do your homework and be sure that your hardware is Linux supported, before laying the blame at developers, whose hands are tied by proprietary hardware / software license requirements, because if the developers are reputable, they do honour license requirements.
I have a laptop with a particularly stubborn Broadcom BCM4311 wifi that will only work with the proprietary driver.
My preferred distro ships with the required proprietary driver in the .iso, but due to licensing, are unable to to invoke it in the live session automatically, but it can be installed by the user in the live session and is available for use after install.
47 • Compatability Layer Problems (by dave on 2018-08-28 04:32:20 GMT from United States)
Is it not perfect compatibility with a competing platform that led to the demise of IBM's OS/2? At least I can remember reading something of this nature. I am not saying a perfect Wine would kill Linux, but it might have unforseen, long-term consequences. I have backed so far away from Wine these days that I rarely have it installed. I suppose if you are a hardcore gamer and you just want to get off Windows and don't care about anything else, it's good news. Wine proponents can call it 'esoteric worry' or whatever they want but there is definitely historical evidence that this kind of compatability layer ripple effect can occur. The better the compatibilty, the more likely it will occur.
48 • Norcux OS (by GB_2 on 2018-08-28 04:55:00 GMT from Germany)
@36 Ok.That it's not asking for a password when using sudo (in the installed system) is indeed a bug, thanks for reporting it :-)
49 • Puppy Linux knew its better to be root... (by OstroL on 2018-08-28 08:05:04 GMT from Poland)
The system is owned by root, so the real user is root. Puppy Linux creator knew this and didn't create pseudo user. Lot of people (who use other distros) cried of the "lack" of security, how vulnerable it would be and so on. Puppy Linux and its community lives and prospers, somewhat away from here. (They don't have to come here, as the knowledgeable users are in their forum.)
Puppy Linux's existence without any crusis all this time is the proof that the being the root, rather than a pseudo user is not a security problem. Root is root, and only you know the pasword.
50 • @47 Wine paranoia? (by curious on 2018-08-28 13:06:45 GMT from Germany)
I don't understand this. Please explain more clearly. Why should it be a problem that an easy way exists to run certain (definitely not all!) Windows software in Linux?
And what are the ominous "unforseen, long-term consequences"? Or the "compatability layer ripple effect"?
Causes for OS/2's demise were more likely the high price, hefty hardware requirements (compared to plain DOS), and MS's market domination. And while OS/2 was technically superior to the DOS/Windows 3 combination, the "improved" file system HPFS was incompatible.
51 • Diffetent OSs and apps (by OstroL on 2018-08-28 14:29:32 GMT from Poland)
It'd kill the petrol engine, if you put diesel in it.
If you want (very badly) use Windows apps, you should use a machine with that OS, not wine or any emulator. If you are using such an emulator, you are just cheating yourself.
Any such emulator is actually glorifying Windows.
52 • Out of box (by Friar Tux on 2018-08-28 18:11:34 GMT from Canada)
#45 & 46... I heartily agree with comment 45. I also use Linux Mint for its out-of-box usability. I tried about a dozen distros before adopt Mint and found Mint to be consistently the best. No after install fiddling and messing with drivers and such. Most of the other distros either couldn't find the wifi (even though they correctly ID'ed the driver), or has other glitches that hampered my work.
As for su, su -, and sudo... well, sometimes and job needs a Robertson screwdriver, sometime a Philips screwdriver, and sometimes a plain flat/straight screwdriver... use what you need to.
Oh, and about root and user... I really like that root owns the system. I don't know how many times I have suffered from the "fat finger syndrome" and hit the wrong button/key, only to be told that, hey, that's root's job, not your's, leave that file/directory alone!
53 • @51, root ownership (by Angel on 2018-08-29 01:47:01 GMT from Philippines)
Here I was happily goofing off at my PC when there's a knock at the door. It was this guy Root, flanked by two burly Linux cops. He wanted his system back, or else. So here I am on Windows, hoping this Administrator guy doesn't get pissed-off at me and want his system back too.
54 • @53 Root and so on... (by OstroL on 2018-08-29 05:30:30 GMT from Poland)
You might own the computer, for you sort of paid for it. In most Linux distros, what you install from a live iso is an unsquashed squashed root system. You are allowed to create a user, as root doesn't trust you enough to be a responsible person, who can take care of yourself.
Puppy Linux, for example, trusts you and consider you to be responsible. There you are the root. Puppy Linux users have a vibrant forum, and doesn't need to come here.
Btw, you don't own the copy of Windows, as it is distributed as a service. You pay for the beginning of the service. You cannot stop the upgrades -- the service is looking after itself. You can schedule the rebooting. It repairs itself, if something goes wrong. I haven't found a Linux distro that repairs itself (since 2004).
55 • @54 Root (by Angel on 2018-08-29 06:17:57 GMT from Philippines)
Yep. I sympathize, especially after my traumatic experience. This tall, tree-like guy planted himself in front of my desk and deleted all my Linuxes. Seemed to have a limited vocabulary, responding to any questions with three words: "I am Root."
56 • So, should you be just root? (by OstroL on 2018-08-29 10:22:34 GMT from Poland)
So, should you be the "sort of" user and then become the real owner, root by using su, sudo or sudo su or just be root and own your system, together with the computer?
57 • Being Root (by TheTKS on 2018-08-29 11:32:12 GMT from Canada)
Being Root and conversation between Angel and OstroL
@OstroL To the statement about Windows updating and repairing itself, I would add that Windows sometimes also breaks itself and the drives it’s on, sometimes irreparably. About Puppy, thanks for the reminder about Puppy running as root by default.
Another reason Other was the right choice. Using Puppy its default way could sometimes fit under “I logout and start a new session as root”, but since I almost always shut down my computers when done sessions, I usually start a new session of Puppy with intent to use Puppy, not shut down another distro I’m in (or Windows) and start Puppy just to start running as root. And a computer with no HDD, the only way I can run it at the moment is running a live or portable OS, like Puppy.
Since I’m usually the only *human* user of my home computers, at those times running root should be safe, especially when disconnected from the internet, except from my own stupid mistakes. But stupid mistakes are also possible when temporarily running sudo, su, su -...
Since other people are sometimes in the vicinity of my home computers, I always lock when I leave the computer, including Puppy.
@ Angel Great and entertaining ways to describe how root behaves, thank you!
58 • Running as an Administrator (by dragonmouth on 2018-08-29 12:13:52 GMT from United States)
I just read an article entitled "How to Always Run Apps as Administrator on Windows". The article was posted on an otherwise reputable tech site.
59 • @57, @58 (by Angel on 2018-08-29 16:07:18 GMT from Philippines)
I guess my sarcasm failed to take root.
Come on, guys! There is no such entity as "root" that exhibits any particular behavior. I am root when I want to be, just as you are when you want to be on your own systems. I suppose what you resent is not being able, by default, to always run a GUI as root. If you want it presented to you on a platter, then use Puppy and be done. You want to do it on another distro, no one is stopping you. Don't know how? Google it, for God's sake, and make a little effort.
@58 Enabling the Administrator account in Windows is trivial and perfectly legit and reputable. MS and Windows, rather than Linux, were my bread and butter for many years, and I still dabble as I please.
60 • @59 Angel: (by dragonmouth on 2018-08-29 17:26:28 GMT from United States)
I posted about the article because, IMO, it is pertinent to the discussion of running as root vs running as user. I gave the exact title so posters can search for and read the article and form their own opinions.
Enabling the Administrator account may be perfectly legit and reputable. But because it is trivial, it makes things much easier for malware and hackers. That is the difference between Windows and Linux. In Linux, no user apps can change system files and access folders that are usually restricted. Admin privileges have to be specifically asked for and granted. Any damage from malware picked up by the user is localized to that user's partition. In Windows, OTOH, user apps are designed to access system files and restricted folders and/or change the registry. Any malware the user(s) pick up affects not only their space but also can bring down and/or wipe out the system.
I'm sure that you are going to tell us that in all the years of buttering the MS/Windows bread your system was never compromised. Mazeltov! You were either lucky or well versed in system security. However, how many Windows users have the necessary knowledge to prevent the compromising of their system? Based on the reported number of PCs affected by malware/ransomware, I would say not many.
"I guess my sarcasm failed to take root. "
Sarcasm does not register well in print. As far as your attempt at a pun..................
61 • @60 Root or "open as Administrator" on Linux? (by OstroL on 2018-08-29 19:24:03 GMT from Poland)
So you use "open as Administrator" in Linux to become root?
Open as Administrator in that "service" doesn't ask for a password. You can do whatever you want, even try to delete some system files, damage the system. Then you can troubleshoot and get it to repair itself, and if that won't help, you can restore it or reinstall it from that broken system. It might take some time, but it'd bring your system back to life. I've tried this on one of my laptops. That "service" brought my system back.
I won't do that experiment with a Linux distro, for example delete some files from /bin or /etc or /sbin or some other root folder, of course with sudo for the Linux distro would not repair itself.
You never lose your "system as a service" as far as you don't change a major hardware part, such as the motherboard. Even then there are ways to keep the same system.
Manipulating the Linux distros has become bit boring nowadays. Nothing much changes these days, except some taking out features as in Gnome. All those nice apps of bygone days (Cairo dock, AWN...) don't work any more in the "developed" distros. No backward compatibility at all.
62 • @60 (by Angel on 2018-08-29 20:06:37 GMT from United Kingdom)
"The number of malicious programs created for Windows, Linux and Mac OS closely correlates to the market share that each of these operating systems has achieved." -Kaspersky
OS percentage of malware
Desktop OS market share:
Most malware originators are after profits. Desktop Linux is a tiny percentage. Windows is a much bigger target. They are not really after your home PC. In Linux, it's more profitable to attack enterprise servers. If state-sponsored malware is involved, all bets are off, but unless you have something
Notice that as systems, including Windows, have become more hardened, firmware is now being targeted. Yes, I've had adware on my Windows systems once in a while. Usually because I neglected to uncheck something or other when installing applications. Once, the resident AV caught a trojan being downloaded. No, I don't use any special AVs. I've used MS's own since WIndows 7. The removal of malware from other people's PCs has been profitable for me, though. Along with Linux distros, I run Windows 10 now, when I'm not on Linux. Not really worried about either OS.
Actually, the equivalent to root in Windows is not the Administrator, it is "System." Since Windows is proprietary, access is limited even to the Administrator account. I've had to grapple with that little problem a few times. On the security front, Microsoft introduced UAC years ago, but had to weaken it due to users' complaints abut entering passwords, much like these guys here complaining about not being able to run as root all the time, which is what prompted my misunderstood attempt at sarcasm.
Is Linux safer? Sure. I've used it for quite a few years, lots of times to help diagnosing and fixing Windows PCs. But it's really not such a minefield out there.
63 • @62 Kaspersky, AV? Come on! (by OstroL on 2018-08-29 20:49:42 GMT from Poland)
Those companies has to make a living, so they'd say anything to get customers. These days, the "system as a service" users are not prompted at all to look for an outside antivirus app. They are no longer needed.
Just put a zipped malicious rootkit in a usb stick and plug it to a computer with that "system as a service" and see for yourself.
Not those eol stuff that you've been helping your friends with, but the completely different system as a service.
(You are jumping from Philippines to UK in minutes, so can't exactly trust you.)
64 • @63 (by Angel on 2018-08-29 21:30:58 GMT from Philippines)
I don't care one whit whether you trust me or not. I run several systems and several browsers, some with VPNs. Even Tor and I2p might be found somewhere around here. Or perhaps Distrowatch is just wrong about my location. Who cares? In any case, I have no idea what you are talking about. Let's see: I'm going to go wandering about town, where I find a USB stick dropped on the sidewalk. "What could this be?," I say. And I can't wait to stick it in my PC, which of course has autorun enabled. Is that it? Do I add a third party AV because Kaspersky or some other hypnotizes me, or do I not because my SaaS says no? (I don't run SaaS, BTW, but that's beside the point.)
In reality, I do keep VMs and such into which I may inject suspected malware sometimes, and I submit samples to VirusTotal once in a while. Now if I were running Linux as root, as you advocate, wouldn't the same danger apply? Of course, it may be just a 2% chance, because that is about the market share of Linux desktops. You follow?
65 • More masked root user nonsense (by M.Z. on 2018-08-29 22:58:32 GMT from United States)
"...You are allowed to create a user, as root doesn't trust you enough to be a responsible person, who can take care of yourself."
How is that not exactly identical to the previously mentioned fallacy:
Premise 1: User doesn't have instant system wide access.
Premise 2: Root does have instant system wide access.
Conclusion: Therefore user can’t be root and has no control of the system.
Where is superman in all this nonsense you keep going on about L. Lane? Have you never squinted at that guy next to you & asked 'could he be doing all that stuff'? What's so special about the difference between su - as user & root?
I'd like to know why it isn't total nonsense.
Me I like su - fine & feel like some kind of superuser whenever I want. I don't log in that way, but you can if you want in plenty of distros.
66 • @62 Angel: (by dragonmouth on 2018-08-29 23:10:03 GMT from United States)
When applications are written to be able to change the registry and system files whenever they want to, the O/S can have 0.00001% market share and it still will be a very large target for hackers and malware. It is disingenuous to blame market share for the number of attacks while conveniently overlooking the user applications with system file upgrade permissions that make those attacks possible and easier. From Day 1, Windows was not a secure O/S. Microsoft could make it at least as secure as Linux and/or BSD but for reasons known only to Mr. Bill and God, they have not, do not and probably will not choose to do so.
67 • Security (by Ron on 2018-08-30 03:27:36 GMT from United States)
A personal computer is not secure if not under full observation if it has a USB port! Details left for your mental exercise.
68 • @66 someone else's security... (by OstroL on 2018-08-30 04:58:03 GMT from Poland)
" From Day 1, Windows was not a secure O/S. Microsoft could make it at least as secure as Linux and/or BSD but for reasons known only to Mr. Bill and God, they have not, do not and probably will not choose to do so."
We, the Linux "users" don't have to worry this much on some other OS's security or any other problems. All we have to worry is how we do anything in root's shoes. Never heard of any user of Windows camp worrying about us using root's privileges or even how we use Linux. Our worry about how they use their (insecure) Windows is just simply funny!
69 • @68 (by Angel on 2018-08-30 05:13:11 GMT from Philippines)
Read much? I've run Linux on all my PCs for around 12 years. I've installed Linux systems for clients, friends and others many times. At one time or another I have tried most of the major distros, and some small and obscure ones. Matter of fact, I am writing this on the newest addition to DW's waiting list: Norcux OS Alpha, and I've tried to provide some useful feedback to the developer. Used to do a bit of that years ago, not so much anymore, not because I like Linux any less, but because I've grown tired of Linux users like you. Yes, my main line of work has been dealing with Windows, etc. Linux, like Windows, is just an OS, not a religion.
70 • Real world distribution popularity and "DistroWatch Page Hit Ranking" (by ioannis on 2018-08-30 06:06:58 GMT from Greece)
Could someone explain? I can see that MXLinux and Elementary are very popular here, even more popular than Debian and Fedora. Is anyone using these distros in the real world? Every linux user i know prefer ubuntu, fedora, centos, mint, debian, even Puppy. But none is using MX Elementary after trying it. Not for everyday use.
71 • @ 69 (by OstroL on 2018-08-30 06:38:55 GMT from Poland)
"Yes, my main line of work has been dealing with Windows, etc. Linux, like Windows, is just an OS, not a religion."
Nowadays, Windows had grown from an OS you can buy to a "service" provided to you for one time payment. Sure, you can earn some money by repairing the EOL windows systems in your country.
72 • Su vs Sudo (by Alexandru on 2018-08-30 07:28:06 GMT from Romania)
I personally always use su, and disable any non-privileged user to be sudoer.
However, there are simple translation of su -> sudo and sodu -> su, just if you work on someone's computer / laptop:
1. su = sudo su # Gain the root privileges for several actions when only sudo is available.
2. sudo = su -c "" # run just a single command as root when only su is available
73 • @72 Su vs Sudo (formatting correction) (by Alexandru on 2018-08-30 07:30:56 GMT from Romania)
I personally always use su, and disable any non-privileged user to be sudoer.
However, there are simple translation of su -> sudo and sodu -> su, just if you work on someone's computer / laptop:
1. su = sudo su # Gain the root privileges for several actions when only sudo is available.
2. sudo some-command = su -c "some-command" # run just a single command as root when only su is available
74 • "service" religion (by curious on 2018-08-30 09:47:59 GMT from Germany)
Please stop insinuating that Windows is no longer an operating system.
This "service" is just a business trick to try to prevent people from doing things that MS might not like. Some time in the future, they may start charging continuously for that "service", but that just means that the customer no longer buys a license, but rents(!) it instead.
Oh, and there are still Windows systems (7, 8.1) that are NOT "EOL" and don't pretend to be some mythical "more than an OS" service.
75 • @70 ioannis: (by dragonmouth on 2018-08-30 12:05:31 GMT from United States)
DistroWatch's Page Hit Ranking numbers show how many times a particular distro's home page was accessed within a given period of times. They do not show the actual usage numbers for distros.
BTW - Mint and Ubuntu are #2 and #3 in the current Page Hit Rankings.
76 • @68 OstroL: (by dragonmouth on 2018-08-30 12:34:57 GMT from United States)
"We, the Linux "users" don't have to worry this much on some other OS's security"
That's where you are wrong, my dear OstroL. Ever hear about bot nets or zombie PCs? Because Windows has such a large market share and because Windows is so vulnerable, many more Windows computers can and will become zombie PCs and/or part of bot nets. The bigger the bot nets and the more zombie computers, the bigger the danger they present to the uninfected/unaffected machines, including those running Linux and BSD.
BTW - running Linux as root is like having unprotected sex. You may be lucky for a while but sooner or later, you'll catch an STD.
77 • Post # 52 (by Winchester on 2018-08-30 12:57:42 GMT from France)
That has to be related to your specific hardware.
I have 5 GNU / Linux distributions on my laptop which is my secondary computer. Only one of those distributions is from the Debian family.
WiFi and everything else works fine out of the box on all 5 distributions. Nothing hampering any work with my hardware. No systemd on three of them.
Actually the one from the Debian family ( MX-Linux ,not the most recent one though) has problems with the cursor / touchpad. None of the other four distributions suffer from that problem.
Of course there were a few distributions that I tried in live mode which I did not install because of problems before I settled on the 5 of them that I have installed to the hard drive.
On my main desktop with ethernet,I have about 12 distributions with only one of them from the Debian family and no glitches hampering my work ..... If there were,they would not be permanently installed.
78 • DW Ranking (by Morton on 2018-08-30 14:01:43 GMT from Ukraine)
There are several comments above on the DistroWatch Rankings.
Here just another one: probably there is a need to analyze the HTTP referer.
For eg., on the deepin.org download page there is a link:
... as simple as that !
79 • @68 (by OstroL on 2018-08-30 15:27:23 GMT from Poland)
" Ever hear about bot nets or zombie PCs? Because Windows has such a large market share and because Windows is so vulnerable, many more Windows computers can and will become zombie PCs and/or part of bot nets."
Sure, sure, they are all out to attack the poor Linux desktop users. Would anyone want attack insignificant amount of desktop users, who cannot even overtake long eol XP?!
By the way, why are you so worried about Windows vulnerability, every single week?
80 • Edit the config (by Sudoer on 2018-08-30 15:40:45 GMT from Sweden)
Sudo is a great tool if used properly. On most distros these days it comes configured as a substitute for root, so of course you can "sudo su -" etc. because there would be no other way to administer your system. Read the docs, set a root password, then run "visudo" if you want security.
81 • Nothing wrong with su (by penguinx64 on 2018-08-31 00:50:54 GMT from Bahrain)
I've been using su for years. I don't like sudo. Why are so many distros taking away su now? At least give me the option whether to use su or not. Sort of reminds me of Microsoft trying to take away XP and replace it with Vista.
82 • page hit rankings (by mis interpretation on 2018-08-31 05:09:37 GMT from Australia)
On the page hit rankings alpha-grade ReactOS is number 14 - higher than many Linux distros. It shows a lot of interest but surely it is not being regularly used by ppl?
83 • @ 70 - Real world distribution popularity (by ioannis from Greece) (by frisbee on 2018-08-31 09:16:10 GMT from Switzerland)
70 • Real world distribution popularity and "DistroWatch Page Hit Ranking" (by ioannis on 2018-08-30 06:06:58 GMT from Greece)
"Is anyone using these distros in the real world?"
I do. I have 5 different Linux distributions in productive setups.
Antix 17.1, Mint 17.3, MX-17.1, Salix 14.2 and Springdale 7.5.
Springdale - Great choice if someone has a need for RHEL certified SW (RedHat/CentOS). Obviously, not for general usage.
Mint 17 - "The best Linux ever". As long as it's still supported. Great for general usage.
Salix - the best choice when one doesn't need a lot and newest and greatest SW. Quickest and most stable Linux ever, without all the usual Slackware hassle. And by quickest, I don't think only in sheer numbers like for example, default Salix XFCE uses a half of the RAM of default MX setup, I mean, it's really quick. Just compare the responsiveness by yourself and you'll understand what I mean. It's Slackware goodness underneath. Amen.
MX 17 - "finished" Debian. Extremely stable and reliable. Currently the best general usage OS. The best battery life of all Linuxes. Will replace Mint 17 next spring.
Antix - great for old HW and for new in certain use cases (like mine). Default installation runs on 80 MB RAM. So, what does it matter when one has 64 GB on desktop or 32 GB RAM on laptop? Well, if those machines serve only one purpose -- to run VM's, then I don't care about the OS looks. I don't see the desktop most of the time anyway. But, I care for 1.5 GB of RAM savings (compared to GNOME3) because it means one more VM can run simultaneously.
"Every linux user i know prefer ubuntu, fedora, centos, mint, debian, even Puppy. But none is using MX Elementary after trying it."
Most people do not understand anything about their OS, don't wanna know anything and don't wanna learn anything new and also have no need for something special. They just look if it runs on their HW and how does it look (design) and if they can also run a couple of their favorite applications on it, they are happy. That's perfectly legit and applies to 90+ percent of all use cases.
On the other side:
Mint - as already explained. Mostly works out of the box and it has the most applications average user might want.
CentOS - as already explained. It's like with Adobe Suite or MS Office. If you need it, you need Windows. You've got no choice. Plus 10 years of support. It never changes. You buy a new machine, you install it, you use it. A couple of years later, you buy a new machine, you install it, you use it... Most people don't want to work on their computers but with their computers. Nobody cares for OS.
Fedora - test bed of RHEL. All the time newest experiments and never really working. Wayland is currently a no go ... If you're missing work, great choice - since it will always keep you busy.
Debian - extremely stable, unfinished, raw product. Great base to make a usable OS but, one has to make himself a finished one - or one just takes MX instead.
Ubuntu - once a leader. It was the only company that could have make Linux an alternative to Apple and Microsoft. Unique and great Unity got dropped, LTS support got worse (just check: ubuntu-support-status --show-unsupported) ... Cannonical gave up on Desktop Linux and concentrates on business. Ubuntu got an abandoned, unloved child.
Elementary OS - like Mint and many others, basically Ubuntu. Great looks for those who prefer Mac-Look. Most people come from Windows ...
Also, it looks great but, it's usability is very questionable - everything gray-in-gray is very eyes unfriendly, many small (bad) design flows like mini-/maximizing of windows and son are not for everybody. And looks ... as soon as you install a dozen of SW, not explicitly made for Elementary, it will not look good anymore.
84 • @83 (by OstroL on 2018-08-31 10:08:13 GMT from Poland)
"Unique and great Unity got dropped, LTS support got worse (just check: ubuntu-support-status --show-unsupported) ... Cannonical gave up on Desktop Linux and concentrates on business. Ubuntu got an abandoned, unloved child."
And that's the story of desktop Linux for the non-enterprise users.
"Debian - extremely stable, unfinished, raw product. Great base to make a usable OS but, one has to make himself a finished one "
And, you'd have your own desktop Linux.
85 • @ 84 (by frisbee on 2018-08-31 10:20:27 GMT from Switzerland)
by OstroL or OStroll? ^^
"... - or one just takes MX instead."
One has to be fair.
86 • @85 (by OstroL on 2018-08-31 12:22:01 GMT from Poland)
Not exactly. You create your own, just as MX guys had done or even better. Install the base, add Openbox and configure it anyway you want. Debian is practically, the only comminity based Linux OS out there - the Universal OS.
87 • The Linux Desktop (by Garon on 2018-08-31 13:36:34 GMT from United States)
@83 & 84,
Canonical did drop Unity and more or less dropped major desktop support for the general consumer. One of the reasons was they received no great love or support from the Linux community. Anything that was based on Ubuntu was always the "Ubuntu done right" nonsense. The group that should have supported Ubuntu and their innovations were always the ones that wanted to see them fail. They didn't want the general population in their little boy's club. Canonical is doing very well now but not because of the desktop. Everyone should be happy now. Ubuntu will be to Canonical what Fedora is to RHEL. It's sad to think what could have been. I will be reuniting with the Mepis community now and will be using MX.
88 • Salix OS (by gplcoder on 2018-08-31 17:41:55 GMT from Moldova, Republic of)
@83 - Thanks for the Salix recommendation. I just posted a review. In short, not bad but missing LAMP packages (even from SBo). Apache, Php, MariaDB all present as binaries but no database drivers. No PDO SQLite3 and no PDO MySQL. I realize that Salix is not a server OS but it is multi-purpose and I was hoping that it would make a good development system. I have an MX 17 Precision laptop beside me no problems setting up a LAMP stack on it.
89 • Ubuntu done right (by penguinx64 on 2018-09-01 03:43:29 GMT from Bahrain)
Everybody was 'doing Ubuntu right', except Canonical. That's why there are so many Ubuntu based distros that fix stuff Canonical got wrong. Take Mint for example. it just works, with no hassles, out of the box. I've been using Mint ever since Ubuntu screwed up the desktop interface with Ubuntu 12.04. Ubuntu went from #1 in Distrowatch's page hit ranking a few years ago to #3 today, behind Manjaro and Mint.
But I really wanted to see Ubuntu Touch succeed. It would be great to have a tablet or smartphone that doesn's spy on me like Android. But during the development of Ubuntu Touch, it was more like Ubuntu Don't Touch! There was never a version I could install on any of my devices. Then, the few Ubuntu Touch phones were not rated very well. Too slow and not enough apps. I think it's great Canonical put so much time and effort into this project.
I guess the problem with Ubuntu was attempting to merge desktops and mobile devices into a single user interface. Microsoft tried that with Windows 8 Metro tiles, but it didn't work for them either.
90 • @88 (by frisbee on 2018-09-01 14:26:42 GMT from Switzerland)
I use Salix for webdevelopement.
Download, make executable, install and run the panel.
91 • OS's (by brOK on 2018-09-02 05:59:26 GMT from Australia)
@83 good elucidation of OS usage. For example, using an OS for a selection of apps will be useful when ReactOS matures.
92 • death of ubuntu is greatly exaggerated (by Tim on 2018-09-02 10:48:58 GMT from United States)
The weekly bemoaning of how terrible Ubuntu has gotten has reached somewhat of a fever pitch this week, so I feel the need to point out that it's not nearly dead and not terrible at all.
What makes Ubuntu awesome is not that it developed its own desktop or that they were trying to converge computers and smartphones... it's that for more than a decade now they've frozen snapshots of Debian unstable every six months and given a remarkably stable compromise between a rolling and stable distro.
How much you like each individual release is honestly more about you than Ubuntu. It depends on what hardware you're running and what software you select, and what issues happen to have percolated up at that time. I've used most releases since 14.04 and here's my list of preference
Your results will absolutely vary, and that's fine. But stop saying it's dead. It's a fantastic base system and some flavors like Ubuntu MATE and Xubuntu deliver fairly perfect desktop OSs. Every other major desktop is in the repos. I currently use Ubuntu MATE and sometimes switch to IceWM and twm.
93 • LMDE vs Ubuntu-based Mint? (by Ben Myers on 2018-09-02 21:05:34 GMT from United States)
Now that the latest LMDE is available, what are the advantages and disadvantages of it compared to the Ubuntu-based versions?
Number of Comments: 93
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|• Issue 791 (2018-11-26): Haiku R1 Beta1, default passwords on live media, Slax and Kodachi update their media, dual booting DragonFly BSD on EFI|
|• Issue 790 (2018-11-19): NetBSD 8.0, Bash tips and short-cuts, Fedora's networking benchmarked with FreeBSD, Ubuntu 18.04 to get ten years of support|
|• Issue 789 (2018-11-12): Fedora 29 Workstation and Silverblue, Haiku recovering from server outage, Fedora turns 15, Debian publishes updated media|
|• Issue 788 (2018-11-05): Clu Linux Live 6.0, examining RAM consumpion, finding support for older CPUs, more Steam support for running Windows games on Linux, update from Solus team|
|• Issue 787 (2018-10-29): Lubuntu 18.10, limiting application access to specific users, Haiku hardware compatibility list, IBM purchasing Red Hat|
|• Issue 786 (2018-10-22): elementary OS 5.0, why init keeps running, DragonFly BSD enables virtual machine memory resizing, KDE neon plans to drop older base|
|• Issue 785 (2018-10-15): Reborn OS 2018.09, Nitrux 1.0.15, swapping hard drives between computers, feren OS tries KDE spin, power savings coming to Linux|
|• Issue 784 (2018-10-08): Hamara 2.1, improving manual pages, UBports gets VoIP app, Fedora testing power saving feature|
|• Issue 783 (2018-10-01): Quirky 8.6, setting up dual booting with Ubuntu and FreeBSD, Lubuntu switching to LXQt, Mint works on performance improvements|
|• Issue 782 (2018-09-24): Bodhi Linux 5.0.0, Elive 3.0.0, Solus publishes ISO refresh, UBports invites feedback, Linux Torvalds plans temporary vacation|
|• Issue 781 (2018-09-17): Linux Mint 3 "Debian Edition", file systems for SSDs, MX makes installing Flatpaks easier, Arch team answers questions, Mageia reaches EOL|
|• Issue 780 (2018-09-10): Netrunner 2018.08 Rolling, Fedora improves language support, how to customize Kali Linux, finding the right video drivers|
|• Issue 779 (2018-09-03): Redcore 1806, keeping ISO downloads safe from tampering, Lubuntu makes Calamares more flexible, Ubuntu improves GNOME performance|
|• Issue 778 (2018-08-27): GuixSD 0.15.0, ReactOS 0.4.9, Steam supports Windows games on Linux, Haiku plans for beta, merging disk partitions|
|• Issue 777 (2018-08-20): YunoHost 126.96.36.199, limiting process resource usage, converting file systems on Fedora, Debian turns 25, Lubuntu migrating to Wayland|
|• Issue 776 (2018-08-13): NomadBSD 1.1, Maximum storage limits on Linux, openSUSE extends life for 42.3, updates to the Librem 5 phone interface|
|• Full list of all issues|
Star Labs - Laptops built for Linux.
View our range including the Star Lite, Star LabTop and more. Available with a choice of Ubuntu, Linux Mint or Zorin OS pre-installed with many more distributions supported. Visit Star Labs for information, to buy and get support.
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K12Linux was Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP.org) integrated with Fedora, in a convenient Live USB or DVD media installer. Since 1999, LTSP has empowered many schools and businesses with Linux-based terminal servers and thin clients, allowing low-cost clients or recycled computers to become powerful Linux desktop machines. K12Linux allows easy deployment of a Linux terminal server, capable of serving entire networks of netboot diskless clients. Clients login to the central terminal server, where they can use any Linux desktop environment and most desktop applications. Significant long-term cost savings are made possible by central management of software and accounts.