| DistroWatch Weekly
|DistroWatch Weekly, Issue 53, 14 June 2004
Welcome to this year's 24th edition of DistroWatch Weekly. It was another quiet week with only Xandros disturbing the distribution scene with its Open Circulation Edition. Have you download it yet? If so, what are your impressions?
Xandros goes freeware, Lindows goes bundle
The release of Xandros's Open Circulation Edition (OCE) came as a surprise to many, not only because the company gave no advanced warnings about it, but also because the product is freely distributable and completely free for non-commercial use. It even comes bundled with the Xandros NTFS partitioning tool, which as many of you will recall, is absent from the company's US$39 Xandros Desktop Standard edition. The only functional restriction of OCE is in the integrated CD burner which only supports very low burning speeds. This, however, shouldn't be of much concern (you do use the command line to burn CDs anyway, right?) and the OCE seems like an excellent deal. It also removes the often heard argument by some users who maintain that they won't buy a Linux distribution unless they can try it first. Overall, a very good move by Xandros, especially now that many distributions seem to be moving away from being "free".
Xandros OCE - a free edition of Xandros Desktop for home use
(full image size 229kB)
While we found the announcement by Xandros very exciting, we were surprised that a different announcement, by Lindows.com, received much more attention in the Linux media. In case you've missed it, Lindows.com is now bundling 8 CDs with Linspire 4.5, Mandrakelinux 10.0 and Fedora Core 2, and selling the bundle for US$39.95. This is designed to to give us an opportunity to evaluate different distributions and choose the one that fits our needs best.
But is this news?
If some of you are tempted by the offer, then let us remind you that you can get Mandrakelinux 10.0, Fedora Core 2 and SUSE LINUX 9.1 Professional, a total of 13 CDs, for US$25.88 at LinuxCD.org. Even better, get their LinuxCD Pack - 22 CDs of all major distributions for US$35. Of course, there is nothing wrong with Lindows.com selling their bundle. But there is something seriously wrong with the journalists who found the Lindows.com's announcement a newsworthy topic to cover in so much depth.
Tips and tricks: multiple distros HOWTO
A reader wrote in asking for a feature about setting up multiple Linux distributions on a hard disk. "You probably do this more than anybody in the world making you the most qualified to do this," he claimed and, as the 25 Linux and BSD partitions on my two hard disks would be happy to confirm, he probably wasn't too far from the truth. If I was to set up a multiple distribution hard disk now, this is how I'd go about it:
- Partition your hard disk. If you have a new, empty hard disk, you can partition it with a tool like Partition Magic, or more cheaply, with QTParted included with SystemRescueCD, Knoppix or other distributions. SystemRescueCD is particularly suitable for this - it is a small download and it doesn't mount any of your existing hard drives or partitions by default. QTParted is a graphical tool, so if you can drag a mouse, you can partition hard disks. I normally create my first primary partition (/dev/hda1, about 10GB) right at the beginning of the hard disk (reserved for my primary OS), followed by another primary partition (/dev/hda2, also about 10GB) reserved for /home, followed by another primary partition (/dev/hda3, around 1GB) reserved for swap. The rest of the drive is then taken up by a large extended partition (/dev/hda4), which can be sliced up to contain up to 64 logical partitions (/dev/hda5, /dev/hda6, /dev/hda7, and so on). Since most modern distributions seems to be quite large nowadays, I'd recommend giving the logical partitions around 4 - 6GB each.
- Consider the OSs. Linux is particularly easy about where it resides on the hard disk, but other operating systems are much more picky. If you intend to keep Windows on your system, remember that it must be installed on the first partition of the first hard disk (at least that's how it was with Windows 2000 and earlier versions, I am not sure about Windows XP). FreeBSD is not that strict, but it definitely wants to be placed on a primary partition, rather than a logical one. If you still need Windows, you'll be wise to install it first, before installing any Linux distribution or BSD.
- Install distributions. Once your system is partitioned, you can start installing the distributions you want. Even the simplest installers (such the one that comes with Linspire) will give you an opportunity to specify where to install the distribution, although you might have to select an "advanced installation" option to do so. Let's say you have installed Debian on /dev/hda1 (with its /home partition on /dev/hda2) and now you are adding Mandrakelinux to /dev/hda5, Fedora Core /dev/hda6, Linspire on /dev/hda7, and Slackware on /dev/hda8. Since your hard disk is already partitioned, you can safely skip any partitioning questions the installer might provide.
- Keep the same swap partition. No matter how many Linux distributions you install on your hard disk, you only need one swap partition. Many distribution installers will detect and set it up automatically, but if not, you will have to specify it manually (in our case it's at /dev/hda3). It is safe to format the swap partition - no important data are kept on it after you end your current Linux session and reboot the system.
- Don't keep the same home partition. As convenient as this might sound, sharing the same home partition among multiple distributions is asking for trouble. The reason is that each distribution comes with a slightly different set of application versions, the settings of which might not always be compatible with another distribution's set. Yes, you might very well get away with it, especially if all your distributions are reasonably recent, but I would still advise against this. If I want to share data between different distributions (e.g your email folders), I normally use symbolic links - just mount your main home partitions (in our case 'mount /dev/hda2 /mnt/home' then link your mail directory with 'ln -s /mnt/home/Mail ~/Mail'). As for application settings (e.g. bookmarks, browser settings, etc.), I normally copy them from my main distribution's home partition to any new distribution's home partition.
- Choose a boot loader. Historically, lilo was the only bootloader on Linux, but this has changed and nowadays you are more likely to see grub as the recommended boot loader on most distributions (although lilo might still be provided as an option). It doesn't matter which one you choose (it is one of those vim vs emacs battles), both can serve equally well for your purpose. The important thing is to place the boot loaders of different distributions in the correct place, while placing your main distribution's boot loader into the master boot record (MBR). In our case, we'll place the Mandrakelinux boot loader on /dev/hda5, (not /dev/hda), the Fedora boot loader on /dev/hda6, the Linspire boot loader on /dev/hda7 (Linspire is a bit more troublesome than most; more on this in the next paragraph), and the Slackware boot loader on /dev/hda8. Again, it doesn't matter which boot loader you use - you can have lilo in /dev/hda, but use grub in /dev/hda5 and vice versa.
- Reset your main boot loader. Some distributions' installers are particularly inflexible in the way they set things up. Ark Linux and Linspire are among those that insist on overwriting your master boot record without any consideration for your other partitions. If that happens, don't panic - the fix is quite simple. Boot into Linspire (alternatively, boot any live CD, such as Knoppix), log in as root, create a temporary directory with 'mkdir /mnt/tmp', mount the partition occupied by your main distribution (in our case /dev/hda1) with 'mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/tmp', and chroot into it with 'chroot /mnt/tmp'. If your main boot loader on that partition is lilo, then simply execute 'lilo' on the command line; if it is grub, then execute 'grub', then type 'setup (hd0)'. That should restore your master boot record to what it was before you installed Linspire. However, you still need to make changes to the Linspire boot loader, so type Ctrl + D (to get out of the chroot-ed partition), then open /etc/lilo.conf with your favourite text editor. Change the line that reads 'boot=/dev/hda' to 'boot=/dev/hda7' (that's because Linspire is installed on /dev/hda7 in our case), save the modified file, then execute 'lilo' on the command line.
- Install new distribution. Every time you add a new distribution to your hard disk and install its boot loader on the same partition as the distribution itself, you will need to add the two lines to the /etc/lilo.conf of your main distribution's (Debian in our example) lilo, but you won't need to modify /etc/lilo.conf of your newly added distribution. For example, after installing Mandrakelinux on /dev/hda5, you will add these two lines to your Debian's /etc/lilo.conf:
Later you'll decide to install Fedora Core in /dev/hda6, which will mean that you will add another two lines to your Debian's /etc/lilo.conf:
Don't forget to execute 'lilo' after any change you make to /etc/lilo.conf.
- Don't panic. If all of the above seems complicated at first, rest assured that after you've installed your 20th distribution, you'll be a multiboot expert advising all of your local LUG members on these matters. As always, practice makes perfect :-)
Get free SUSE LINUX 9.1 direct from Novell
If you don't have the bandwidth or the patience to perform a SUSE LINUX FTP install, you can get the entire distribution (and other Novell products) for free as part of Novell's Linux Technical Resource Kit:
"The Novell Customer Communities organization provides tools and resources to technical professionals all over the world. In order to continue to provide effective Linux resources from Novell, please answer the following questions to help us understand your Linux experience - and operating environment. Please be as thorough and accurate as possible in your response."
Interested? Then visit this page to find out more.
|Released Last Week
A new version of SystemRescueCD is out. From the changelog: "Added menu that helps choosing boot options; allow to boot harddisk and floppy at prompt; compressed bootdisk images (saved a lot of space); Partimage available in two versions (with or without SSL); updated hotplug and hardware detection; updated e2fsprogs to 1.35; added joe (editor); added telnet (cchangeent and server); added tcpdump (network analyser); removed the warning at startup; many minor updates."
Linux LiveCD Router 1.9.4
A new version of Linux LiveCD Router has been released. From the changelog: "Version 1.9.4 Jun 2004. Added Frottle (Freenet Throttle) Packet Scheduling and QoS for Wireless Networks and Mesh WiFi at /opt/frottle; new default config for MRTG graphical network statistics; updated documentation."
Xandros 2.01 Open Circulation Edition
Xandros has released a free edition of Xandros Desktop, called Open Circulation Edition (OCE): "The Open Circulation Edition is a limited version of Xandros Desktop OS that can be downloaded at no charge and freely distributed to others. It is strictly for non-commercial use, and no e-mail installation support is included." Read the full release announcement and the product pages for more information.
SoL 18.00 Desktop
A desktop edition of Server optimized Linux (SoL) 18.00 has been released: "antitachyon - Manalo & Willner OEG proudly announces the release of SoL-desktop 18.00, the desktop expansion package for the SoL 18.00 series. With this package SoL will convert into a powerfull workstation for development, home, and office use. Features of SoL-desktop 18.00: KDE 3.2 desktop environment + security patches, GNOME 2.4 desktop environment, Mozilla 1.8a1, OpenOffice.org 1.1.1..." The full announcement.
BLAG Linux 10000
A new version of the Fedora-based BLAG Linux is out: "BLAG10000 has been released. BLAG10000 (borrow) is the next major branch of BLAG. It is based on Fedora Core 1. It uses packages from DAG, FreshRPMS, Newrpms, Dries and ATrpms. BLAG is a single CD GNU/Linux distribution based on Fedora Core 1. It includes everything a desktop user would 'expect' on a system and more. It has common server packages and handy utils that admins like." Read the complete release notes for further information and download locations.
Basilisk Live CD 1.3
The newly released Basilisk 1.3 (formerly known as RPM Live CD) is possibly the first live CD based on Fedora Core 2: "This is version 1.3 of the linux4all basilisk workstation live CD. Please consider this release to be currently in testing stage. The 1.2 live CD was ported to Fedora Core 2 packages, 2.6 kernel as default (with 2.4 as fallback), and the X server changed from XFree86 to XOrg due to recent license changes of the XFree86 Project. The disc contains KDE 3.2 like the previous version." Read the rest of the announcement.
knopILS is an Italian variant of the Knoppix live CD. Version 0.6 was released earlier today with the following changes: synchronised with the latest available version of Knoppix 3.4; updated knopILS HOWTO; updated index.html, knoppix-cheatcodes and readme-SECURITY (all Italian versions), new method of compressing the files on the ISO image. Read the full announcement on the distribution's home page (in Italian).
knopILS - the Knoppix live CD in Italian
(full image size 315kB)
Feather Linux 0.5.1
A new version of Feather Linux has been released. From the changelog: "Changes from 0.5 to 0.5.1: reincluded Chipmunk Basic and iftop; the command "xterm" is now functional; added script to download Brag; added cdparanoia; fixed Opera and HD install scripts; fixed xpdf; fixed all scripts that require the dpkg structure."
Development and unannounced releases
|Upcoming Releases and Announcements
Knoppix 3.5 is in the works: "Announcing KNOPPIX 3.5 LinuxTag 2004 DVD Edition. LinuxTag 2004 is the leading conference and expo about Linux and Free Software in Europe, and takes place in Messe- und Kongresszentrum Karlsruhe/Germany from 23.-26. June. LinuxTag e.V. is producing, exclusively for this event, a maxi edition of KNOPPIX as conference DVD. Features of the LinuxTag 2004 edition: over 5 GB of live Software from the Debian distribution, running directly from DVD; updated hardware autodetection (based on kernel 2.4.26 and 2.6.6 with ACPI); m23 software distribution system as boot option; talk papers from the free conference program of LinuxTag 2004, lots of LinuxTag-featured software, online books & videos. The KNOPPIX 3.5 LinuxTag DVD Edition is only available at the entrance of LinuxTag within a kit containing the LinuxTag 2004 collector's pin and an entry ticket for the free conference and exhibition. The kit can be obtained for a fee of 10,- EUR (including funding of the free project booths), as long as supply lasts." Find out more on the Knoppix home page.
|Web Site News
New distribution additions
New on the waiting list
- HKLPG Linux. HKLPG (Hong Kong Linux Player Group) Linux is a Linux distribution based on Mandrakelinux (version 2.0 is based on Mandrakelinux 10.0 Official), but with improved support for Chinese, browser plugins and other enhancements (web site in traditional Chinese).
- Freedows. Freedows is a Brazilian commercial distribution based on Fedora Core. Several editions are available, including Lite, Standard, Thin Client, Professional, and SMB. Among them only the Lite edition is available for free download via BitTorrent.
- K-DEMar. K-DEMar is a live CD distribution based on Knoppix and fully translated into Catalan (included messages and help files).
DistroWatch database summary
- CHAOS. CHAOS is a CD or PXE-based Linux and openMosix cluster distribution. The CHAOS distribution fits on a single business card-sized CD-ROM. This tiny disc will boot any i586-class PC (that supports CD or PXE booting), into a working openMosix node, without disturbing (or even touching) the contents of any local hard disk. Ideal for large-scale adhoc clusters, once booted, CHAOS runs from memory allowing the CD to be used on the next node (and allowing for automated rebooting into the host OS). CHAOS aims to be the fastest, most compact, secure and straight-forward openMosix cluster platform available.
- CCux Linux. CCux Linux is a German distribution project, targeting desktop users. It should be easy to use, especially for users with no prior Linux experience. CCux is optimised for i686 processor architectures.
- Number of Linux distributions in the database: 306
- Number of BSD distributions in the database: 7
- Number of discontinued distributions: 32
- Number of distributions on the waiting list: 79
The "Get the Facts" ads on DistroWatch
As a response to our last week's criticism of Linux sites that accept money for displaying anti-Linux messages on their web sites, a reader in Canada pointed out that Microsoft's advertisements also appear on DistroWatch:
"The ad on the upper left of the attached screenshot has appeared on the site from time-to-time (here in Canada at least). Google seems to be the culprit in this case. Ad placement based upon some contextual idea, where there are relatively few advertisers for the placement service (Google in this case) will cause this."
Here is the screenshot:
Desperation? Fear? Whatever it is, we have only limited control over the advertisements that Google's contextual ads places on the site and Microsoft owns many domain names in various countries around the world. If you happen to spot any more of their infamous "Get the Facts" ads, please let us know so that we can put those particular domains on the list of blocked advertisers.
That's all for this week, see you all next Monday :-)
If you've enjoyed this week's issue of DistroWatch Weekly, please consider sending us a tip.
(Tips this week: 0, value: US$0.00)
|Linux Foundation Training
|• Issue 739 (2017-11-20): Fedora 27, cross-distro software ports, Ubuntu on Samsung phones, Red Hat supports ARM, Parabola continues 32-bit support|
|• Issue 738 (2017-11-13): SparkyLinux 5.1, rumours about spyware, Slax considers init software, Arch drops 32-bit packages, overview of LineageOS|
|• Issue 737 (2017-11-06): BeeFree OS 18.1.2, quick tips to fix common problems, Slax returning, Solus plans MATE and software management improvements|
|• Issue 736 (2017-10-30): Ubuntu 17.10, "what if" security questions, Linux Mint to support Flatpak, NetBSD kernel memory protection|
|• Issue 735 (2017-10-23): ArchLabs Minimo, building software with Ravenports, WPA security patch, Parabola creates OpenRC spin|
|• Issue 734 (2017-10-16): Star 1.0.1, running the Linux-libre kernel, Ubuntu MATE experiments with snaps, Debian releases new install media, Purism reaches funding goal|
|• Issue 733 (2017-10-09): KaOS 2017.09, 32-bit prematurely obsoleted, Qubes security features, IPFire updates Apache|
|• Issue 732 (2017-10-02): ClonOS, reducing Snap package size, Ubuntu dropping 32-bit Desktop, partitioning disks for ZFS|
|• Issue 731 (2017-09-25): BackSlash Linux Olaf, W3C adding DRM to web standards, Wayland support arrives in Mir, Debian experimenting with AppArmor|
|• Issue 730 (2017-09-18): Mageia 6, running a completely free OS, HAMMER2 file system in DragonFly BSD's installer, Manjaro to ship pre-installed on laptops|
|• Issue 729 (2017-09-11): Parabola GNU/Linux-libre, running Plex Media Server on a Raspberry Pi, Tails feature roadmap, a cross-platform ports build system|
|• Issue 728 (2017-09-04): Nitrux 1.0.2, SUSE creates new community repository, remote desktop tools for GNOME on Wayland, using Void source packages|
|• Issue 727 (2017-08-28): Cucumber Linux 1.0, using Flatpak vs Snap, GNOME previews Settings panel, SUSE reaffirms commitment to Btrfs|
|• Issue 726 (2017-08-21): Redcore Linux 1706, Solus adds Snap support, KaOS getting hardened kernel, rolling releases and BSD|
|• Issue 725 (2017-08-14): openSUSE 42.3, Debian considers Flatpak for backports, changes coming to Ubuntu 17.10, the state of gaming on Linux|
|• Issue 724 (2017-08-07): SwagArch 2017.06, Myths about Unity, Mir and Ubuntu Touch, Manjaro OpenRC becomes its own distro, Debian debates future of live ISOs|
|• Issue 723 (2017-07-31): UBOS 11, transferring packages between systems, Ubuntu MATE's HUD, GNUstep releases first update in seven years|
|• Issue 722 (2017-07-24): Calculate Linux 17.6, logging sudo usage, Remix OS discontinued, interview with Chris Lamb, Debian 9.1 released|
|• Issue 721 (2017-07-17): Fedora 26, finding source based distributions, installing DragonFly BSD using Orca, Yunit packages ported to Ubuntu 16.04|
|• Issue 720 (2017-07-10): Peppermint OS 8, gathering system information with osquery, new features coming to openSUSE, Tails fixes networking bug|
|• Issue 719 (2017-07-03): Manjaro 17.0.2, tracking ISO files, Ubuntu MATE unveils new features, Qubes tests Admin API, Fedora's Atomic Host gets new life cycle|
|• Issue 718 (2017-06-26): Debian 9, support for older hardware, Debian updates live media, Ubuntu's new networking tool, openSUSE gains MP3 support|
|• Issue 717 (2017-06-19): SharkLinux, combining commands in the shell, Debian 9 flavours released, OpenBSD improving kernel security, UBports releases first OTA update|
|• Issue 716 (2017-06-12): Slackel 7.0, Ubuntu working with GNOME on HiDPI, openSUSE 42.3 using rolling development model, exploring kernel blobs|
|• Issue 715 (2017-06-05): Devuan 1.0.0, answering questions on systemd, Linux Mint plans 18.2 beta, Yunit/Unity 8 ported to Debian|
|• Issue 714 (2017-05-29): Void, enabling Wake-on-LAN, Solus packages KDE, Debian 9 release date, Ubuntu automated bug reports|
|• Issue 713 (2017-05-22): ROSA Fresh R9, Fedora's new networking features, FreeBSD's Quarterly Report, UBports opens app store, Parsix to shut down, SELinux overview|
|• Issue 712 (2017-05-15): NixOS 17.03, Alpha Litebook running elementary OS, Canonical considers going public, Solus improves Bluetooth support|
|• Issue 711 (2017-05-08): 4MLinux 21.0, checking file system fragmentation, new Mint and Haiku features, pfSense roadmap, OpenBSD offers first syspatch updates|
|• Issue 710 (2017-05-01): TrueOS 2017-02-22, Debian ported to RISC-V, Halium to unify mobile GNU/Linux, Anbox runs Android apps on GNU/Linux, using ZFS on the root file system|
|• Issue 709 (2017-04-24): Ubuntu 17.04, Korora testing new software manager, Ubuntu migrates to Wayland, running Nix package manager on alternative distributions|
|• Issue 708 (2017-04-17): Maui Linux 17.03, Snaps run on Fedora, Void adopts Flatpak, running Android apps on GNU/Linux, Debian elects Project Leader|
|• Issue 707 (2017-04-10): PCLinuxOS 2017.03, Canonical stops Unity development, OpenBSD on a Raspberry Pi, setting up a VPN for privacy|
|• Issue 706 (2017-04-03): Super Grub2 Disk, Snap packages of deepin applications, Subgraph OS routes network traffic for one application, announcements from Linux Mint|
|• Issue 705 (2017-03-27): Minimal Linux Live, sharing control of the operating system, new KaOS features, Uplos32 provides 32-bit fork of PCLinuxOS|
|• Issue 704 (2017-03-20): ToarusOS 1.0.4, Linux Mint's security record, Debian starts Project Leader election, Ubuntu 12.04 reaches end-of-life|
|• Issue 703 (2017-03-13): SolydXK 201701, CloudReady, Solus announces new features, KDE Connect sends text messages from desktop, openSUSE's YaST module for Let's Encrypt|
|• Issue 702 (2017-03-06): Fatdog64 Linux, elementary OS bundled with new netbook, Haiku announces new features, security and the size of a distro's development team|
|• Issue 701 (2017-02-27): OBRevenge 2017.02, Mageia 6 delays, NetBSD reproducible builds, questions about swap space, trying to steam video on a Raspberry Pi|
|• Issue 700 (2017-02-20): RaspBSD, Debian replaces Icedove with Thunderbird, Fedora's licensing guidlines, tips for switching shells, finding battery charge, getting IP address and killing processes|
|• Issue 699 (2017-02-13): Clear Linux, GhostBSD network utility ported to FreeBSD, Ubuntu coming to Fairphone, elementary OS crowd funding an app store|
|• Issue 698 (2017-02-06): Solus 2017.01.01, comparing containers with portable applicatins, Tails dropping 32-bit support, Debian Stretch enters freeze|
|• Issue 697 (2017-01-30): Subgraph OS 2016.12.30, running Ubuntu on an Android phone, Arch Linux phasing out 32-bit support, Linux Mint testing updated LMDE media|
|• Issue 696 (2017-01-23): GoboLinux 016, remotely running desktop applications, Solus adopting Flatpak, KDE neon using Calamares, TrueOS tests OpenRC|
|• Issue 695 (2017-01-16): Zorin OS 12, Peppermint team fixes installer bug, Debian refreshes Jessie media, Ubuntu improves low graphics mode, Exciting things coming in 2017|
|• Issue 694 (2017-01-09): MX Linux 16, Fedora considers systemd security features, DragonFly BSD to support massive swap space, Ubuntu Touch roadmap, Puppy's newsletter, sudo's password prompt|
|• Issue 693 (2017-01-02): Comparing small distros, fig language, video driver comparsion, Debian+PIXEL, Wayland on FreeBSD|
|• Issue 692 (2016-12-19): Bodhi Linux 4.0.0, Cappsule containers, Calculate's new Utilities package, Solus and Ubuntu MATE build new application menu|
|• Issue 691 (2016-12-12): SalentOS 1.0, openSUSE improves YaST, Fedora considers slower release cycle, KDE neon gets LTS branch|
|• Issue 690 (2016-12-05): Fedora 25, Ubuntu adopts rolling HWE kernel, running Android apps on GNU/Linux, Haiku working toward EFI support|
|• Issue 689 (2016-11-28): openSUSE 42.2, Fedora's upgrade path, plans for Korora 25, transitioning from PC-BSD to TrueOS, Webconverger's reproducible builds|
|• Issue 688 (2016-11-21): Endless OS 3.0.5, KDE neon fixes security hole, FreeBSD's Quarterly Status Report, Rolling release trial #2 concludes|
|• Full list of all issues|
|Random Distribution |
Leeenux is an Ubuntu-based commercial Linux distribution tailored to netbooks. Several editions, depending on the user interface are available; these include Unity 2D, MATE and LXDE desktop environments.